The purpose of this series is to review the strength of risk and protective factors for each of seven forms of family violence: partner physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; child physical, psychological, and sexual abuse and child neglect. Definitions of risk and protective factors are presented, as is the five-stage prevention intervention research cycle. The reviews in this series are designed to provide stakeholders with a convenient summary from which to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the current risk and protective factor knowledge. Such reviews are necessary to allow for the eventual construction of etiological models that can support the development of preventive intervention programs and research into their efficacy.
This article discusses patterns across reviews of the risk and protective factors for each of seven forms of family violence: partner physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; child physical, psychological, and sexual abuse and child neglect. We note that both child and partner literatures have large research bases on risk factors for physical abuse, but relatively few articles on psychological or sexual abuse (or child neglect). In addition, co-occurrence of forms of maltreatment within families is high, but little integrative work has been conducted. We argue that the overlap of both occurrence and risk factors across forms of maltreatment suggests that both etiological and intervention models would be improved by considering all forms of maltreatment more explicitly in a family (rather than dyadic) context.
Psychological stress has been shown to impair episodic memory retrieval. Implicated in this memory impairment is the physiological stress response, which interferes with retrieval-related neural processing. An important next step in research is to determine how to improve post-stress memory accessibility. In this review, we first consider methodological differences in studies that have examined stress and memory, as they lend insight into the conditions under which stress does and does not impede retrieval. Motivated by these variations in methodology, we advocate for two potential approaches to intervention. One approach is to employ evidence-based techniques that reduce the physiological stress response. A second approach is to target the processes that occur during initial learning to promote the formation of highly accessible memories. Thus, this review serves to both critically evaluate the methods used to examine the effects of stress on memory retrieval and encourage research on interventions for stress-related memory impairment.
(1) To assess prevalence of physical dating aggression and victimization among high school students; (2) to assess prevalence of mutual and exclusive aggression; (3) to determine whether aggression differs across ethnic groups and relationship type; and (4) to ascertain the likelihood of injury and breakup in individuals who reported that they were the recipients of physical aggression.
We review the risk and protective factors for child sexual abuse. Overall, characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and families of victims were moderate to strong risk factors for child sexual abuse. However, it is difficult to distinguish between risk factors for extra-familial and intra-familial child sexual victimization because most of the studies combined these two types of child sexual abuse, although the risk factors for these two types of child sexual abuse most likely differ. Research in this area is difficult because etiological and prevention models of victimization would differ substantially from those of perpetration. Given the low yearly prevalence of child sexual victimization, very large samples would be necessary to obtain sufficient power. Thus, most studies have used lifetime prevalence, which may provide much useful information but which add substantial time confounds. Finally, child sexual victimization is probably a misnomer, as the nature, impact, and etiology of sexual victimization most likely differs over the large age span of childhood and gender. Because improved models and prevention programs require improved etiological models (based on knowledge of risk and protective factors), we hope that this review will focus stakeholders on the need for continued research in this area.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-1789(00)00023-9 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Sexual abuse, Risk factor, Intra- and extra-familial
Cilt: 6 Sayı: 2-3 Sayfa: 203-229 ISSN: 1359-1789
We review the risk and protective factors for child physical abuse (CPA). An etiological model based on moderate to strongly supported risk factors would begin with distal perpetrator variables of being abused as a child/teen and receiving less family social support as a child. Next might come current family variables such as parents youth, fathers drinking, and familys living in a community that is impoverished and/or has a lower percentage of two parent families. More proximal variables that increase the probability of parents, especially mothers, employing severe or abusive physical tactics could include mothers dysphoria (e.g., unhappiness, emotional distress, anxiety, loneliness and isolation, depression, somatic complaints, interpersonal problems, feelings of incompetence as a parent, a tendency toward becoming upset and angry), and stress (more stressful life events, including parenting and other family stresses) and coping (most likely a protective factor, including problem solving and social support). Finally, risk factors that are proximal to abuse could include mothers high reactivity (impulsivity, high negative affect and autonomic nervous system arousal), high-risk parenting (harsh discipline strategies, verbal aggression, yelling), and negative attributions, and childrens behavior problems (e.g., socialized aggression, attention deficits, and internalizing and externalizing problems).
We review the risk and protective factors for child emotional abuse. Two main directions can be derived from this review. First and foremost, definitional issues must be resolved. Second, some clues as to important future research directions emerged from the current risk factor literature. Distal historical variables (e.g., relationships with fathers perceived as less caring, and being yelled at daily as a child), current enduring personality factors (e.g., aggression and hostility, neuroticism), environmental stressors (e.g., very low income) and proximal variables (verbal and physical aggression between parents) all appear to be related to child psychological abuse. Once definitional issues are resolved, models beginning with these risk factors should be developed and tested.
This study examined whether frequent testing would promote long-term retention of college-level course material. Students in a college course engaged in three different types of interval practice over the course of a 13-week semester: quizzes, quizzes with feedback, and study. We examined the impact of type of interval practice on performance on unit exams. Six exams were given that consisted of multiple choice (MC) questions presented during earlier practice, new highly related MC questions, and new highly related short answer (SA) questions. The variation in type of unit exam questions allowed for the examination of interval quiz-related transfer to related MC and related SA questions. Further, half of the unit exams were taken individually and half were taken collaboratively. This manipulation allowed us to examine post-collaborative facilitation. Results suggest that interval quizzing resulted in beneficial transfer effects to highly related MC and SA questions and post collaborative facilitation.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jarmac.2019.12.005 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Retrieval practice, Transfer effects, Classroom learning
Cilt: 9 Sayı: 1 Sayfa: 83-95 ISSN: 2211-3681
We review the risk and protective factors for male-to-female partner psychological abuse. The conclusions that can be drawn from this review were limited by the small body of research. However, it does appear that partner psychological aggression/abuse may be more difficult to predict than partner physical aggression/abuse. In general, socio-economic status (SES) variables do not appear to significantly increase risk. Certain relationship variables, including communication patterns, marital adjustment, and attachment were significantly associated with psychological aggression, with moderate to strong effect sizes. However, these associations are difficult to interpret, because these relationship variables exhibit a high degree of conceptual and operational overlap with the psychological aggression. Two main directions can be derived from this review. First and foremost, definitional issues must be resolved. Given that partner emotional abuse, unlike physical or sexual abuse, is typically conceptualized as requiring a pervasive pattern rather than a single salient action, reliable and valid assessment is exceedingly challenging. Second, once definitional issues are resolved, etiological and intervention models can be developed and tested. This review indicates that mens personality and couple factors would be the most fruitful areas from which to start.
Neuroadaptive changes that occur in the development of ethanol tolerance may be the result of alterations in gene expression. We have shown that PKCγ wild-type mice develop tolerance to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol after chronic ethanol treatment; whereas, mutant mice do not, making these genotypes a suitable model for identifying changes in gene expression related to tolerance development. Using a two-stage process, several genes were initially identified using microarray analyses of cerebellar tissue from ethanol-treated PKCγ mutant and wild-type mice. Subsequent confirmation of a subset of these genes using quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) was done to verify gene expression changes. A total of 109 genes from different functional classifications were identified in these groups on the microarrays. Eight genes were selected for verification as follows: three, Twik-1, Plp, and Adk2, were chosen as genes related to tolerance; another three, Hsp70.2, Bdnf, and Th, were chosen as genes related to resistance to tolerance; and two genes, JunB and Nur77, were selected as candidate genes sensitive to chronic ethanol. The results from the verification experiments indicated that Twik-1, which codes for a potassium channel, was associated with tolerance and appeared to be dependent on the presence of PKCγ. No genes were confirmed to be related to resistance to tolerance; however, expression of two of these, Hsp70.2 and Th, were found to be sensitive to chronic ethanol and were added to the transcription factors, JunB and Nur77, confirmed by qRT-PCR, as a subset of genes that respond to chronic ethanol.
We review the risk and protective factors for male-to-female sexual abuse. Although partner sexual abuse is a low base rate behavior, which can attenuate correlation coefficients, several relations had moderate effect sizes. Younger (under 30) and older (over 50) women, compared to those between 30 and 50 years old, were more likely to report being victims of partner sexual abuse, as were unemployed women and women from low-income households. Prior unwanted sexual experiences (from a wide variety of perpetrators) and the severity of male-to-female partner physical aggression were associated with male-to-female partner sexual abuse. It is difficult to form conclusions from only six empirical studies. More empirical studies are needed to ascertain the populations most at risk for partner sexual abuse.
The purpose of this study was to examine the link between neighborhood risk and adolescent antisocial behavior and whether this association was moderated by parent and peer relationships and characteristics. We also explored whether the moderating effects varied by age. The sample consisted of 206 adolescents (ages 10–18 years) from predominantly low-income, ethnic minority families. Results indicated that high levels of neighborhood violence and neighborhood danger were significantly related to high levels of antisocial behavior. The findings also showed that high levels of peer (but not parent) prosocial behavior and emotion regulation attenuated the links between neighborhood violence and antisocial behavior. Moreover, parent-adolescent (but not peer-adolescent) relationship quality served as a protective factor in the face of neighborhood violence and danger. In addition, little evidence of age differences in the moderating effects of parents and peers was found. Implications regarding the role of interpersonal relationships in the context of risk are discussed.
We review the risk and protective factors for male-to-female partner physical abuse and present effect sizes. We distinguish among the various operationalizations of physical aggression (e.g., men in court mandated abuse programs, men identified through a single item on the CTS). Overall, however, several risk factors showed moderate to strong effect sizes. Perpetrator factors include SES, education, history of child sexual victimization, exposure to parental physical and/or verbal aggression, violent adult models in childhood, non-family aggression by parent, elevated levels of state and trait anger and hostility; various personality disorders; various Axis I psychopathology, particularly depression alcohol and drug abuse; deficits in spouse-specific assertiveness; and attitudes that condone abuse. Risk factors for women being victimized included less education, unemployment, and history of child emotional/verbal victimization.