Starch is a complex carbohydrate polymer produced by plants and especially by crops in huge amounts. It consists of amylose and amylopectin, which have α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose units. Despite this simple chemistry, the entire starch metabolism is complex, containing various (iso)enzymes/proteins. However, whose interplay is still not yet fully understood. Starch is essential for humans and animals as a source of nutrition and energy. Nowadays, starch is also commonly used in non-food industrial sectors for a variety of purposes. However, native starches do not always satisfy the needs of a wide range of (industrial) applications. This review summarizes the structural properties of starch, analytical methods for starch characterization, and in planta starch modifications.
In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family.Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A5 and MeEF1A6 were successfully isolated [corrected]. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5'UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants.
Elaeidobius kamerunicus is the most important insect pollinator in oil palm plantations. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of E. kamerunicus (17.729 bp), a member of the Curculionidae family, will be reported. The mitogenome consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and a putative control region (CR). Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) using maximum Likelihood (ML) methods indicated that E. kamerunicus belongs to the Curculionidae family. This mitochondrial genome provides essential information for understanding genetic populations, phylogenetics, molecular evolution, and other biological applications in this species. Graphical
The Arabidopsis knockout mutant lacking both the cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) had a dwarf-growth phenotype, a reduced and uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosettes, and a lower starch granule number per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, a triple mutant impaired in starch degradation by its additional lack of the glucan, water dikinase (GWD) showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to the wild type. We concluded that ongoing starch degradation is mainly responsible for the observed phenotype of dpe2/phs1. Next, we generated two further triple mutants lacking either the phosphoglucan, water dikinase (PWD), or the disproportionating enzyme 1 (DPE1) in the background of the double mutant. Analysis of the starch metabolism revealed that even minor ongoing starch degradation observed in dpe2/phs1/pwd maintained the double mutant phenotype. In contrast, an additional blockage in the glucose pathway of starch breakdown, as in dpe2/phs1/dpe1, resulted in a nearly starch-free phenotype and massive chloroplast degradation. The characterized mutants were discussed in the context of starch granule formation.
DOI : 10.1016/j.plaphy.2022.03.033
ISSN: 0981-9428 Cilt: 180 Sayfa: 35-41