At the end of 2019, in Wuhan (China), the onset of a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was observed. The disease, named COVID-19, has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic or mild to critical, and for some patients the disease is even fatal. Apparently, being a child or being pregnant does not represent an additional risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this mini-review was to investigate what is in the scientific literature, so far, in regard to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Data were obtained independently by the two authors, who carried out a systematic search in the PubMed, Embase, LILACS, Cochrane, Scopus and SciELO databases using the Medical Subject Heading terms “coronavirus,” “COVID-19,” and “vertical transmission.” Few studies about the vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are found in the literature. In all case reports and case series, the mothers' infection occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy, there were no maternal deaths, and most neonates had a favorable clinical course. The virus was not detected in the neonate nasopharyngeal swab samples at birth, in the placenta, in the umbilical cord, in the amniotic fluid, in the breast milk or in the maternal vaginal swab samples in any of these articles. Only three papers reported neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there is a bias that positive pharyngeal swab samples were collected at 36 h and on the 2nd, 4th, and 17th days of life. The possibility of intrauterine infection has been based mainly on the detection of IgM and IL-6 in the neonates' serum. In conclusion, to date, no convincing evidence has been found for vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
The activation of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is required during pregnancy and it seems that RAS dysfunction has some important effects on pathological pregnancy conditions, including preeclampsia (PE). The objective of this review is to summarize and to discuss the role of the RAS in normal pregnancy and in PE. We found evidence that the RAS is important for the evolution of pregnancy under physiological conditions and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. In normal gestation, almost all circulating components of RAS are increased and there is a general state of non-reactivity to the vasoconstrictor actions of Angiotensin (Ang) II. In PE, changes in the circulating levels of RAS components occur, especially with an intense decrease in the levels of Ang I, Ang II and Ang-(1–7). Our findings endorse the idea that PE is a disease whose cornerstone relies on altered placental physiology. There are high tissue levels of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in the musculature of the blood vessels and in the placenta, generating a state of increased sensitivity to the vasoconstrictor action of Ang II. AT1R autoantibodies (AT1R-AA) might be one of the key points for the vicious cycle of PE, as these molecules are synthesized in situations of hypoxia and enhance placental vasoconstriction, causing even more hypoxia. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of circulating RAS, uteroplacental RAS and local RAS molecules from other tissues related to the pathogenesis of PE.
DOI : 10.1016/j.preghy.2022.01.011
ISSN: 2210-7789 Cilt: 28 Sayfa: 15-20
Summary Introduction Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is a congenital malformation characterized by a membranous structure located in the prostatic portion of the male posterior urethra that obstructs the urinary flow. Efforts have been made to determine the degree of impairment of fetal kidney function in this condition. Objective This study aimed to measure the levels of urinary biomarkers of glomerular and tubular functions in fetuses with PUV and to compare with the levels of the same molecules in healthy male premature newborns. Study design Urine samples from 43 fetuses with PUVs were collected and compared with urine samples from 40 healthy male newborns of the same gestational age (controls). Tubular and glomerular biomarkers levels were measured in urine samples by MILLIPLEX® assay kits. Levels of the molecules were related to creatinine (Cr) measurements at same urine samples and expressed as pg/mg Cr. Results were analysed with Graphpad Prism version 7.0 and SPSS version 20.0. Results Fetuses with PUV showed a significant reduction in urine levels of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Calbindin, Osteoactivin, Molecule Renal Injury 1 (KIM-1 and Factor of trefoil 3 (TFF-3) when compared to controls. On the other hand, urine levels of cystatin C and renin were higher in PUV fetuses. The levels of molecules also differed according to urine osmolality and grade of hydronephrosis. Discussion Some urinary excreted molecules may indicate kidney damage in several segments along the nephron, while others may exert important functions. Mechanical and immunological mechanisms related to PUV might significantly modulate the synthesis of cytokines related to glomerular and tubular physiology, leading to alterations in urinary concentrations of those molecules. These biomarkers can be used as future diagnostic and prognostic markers in clinical practice. Conclusion Early kidney structural and functional impairment influenced the synthesis of glomerular and tubular molecules related to kidney physiological processes in fetuses with PUV. Download : Download high-res image (415KB) Download : Download full-size image Summary Figure. Flowchart showing the selection and outcome of PUV fetuses and summary of findings. Abbreviations: CKD = chronic kidney disease; ESKD = end-stage kidney disease; EGF = epidermal growth factor; pg/mg; Cr = picogram/milligram of creatinine; KIM-1 = Kidney Injury Molecule-1; PUV: posterior urethral valve; TFF-3 = factor oftrefoil 3; pg/mg Cr = picogram/milligram of creatinine.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpurol.2022.03.019 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Posterior urethral valve, Tubular biomarkers, Glomerular biomarkers, Fetal kidney function