One-dimensional Gd₂O₃:Eu³⁺ nanofibers with cubic phase have been prepared as potential red phosphors by an electrospinning technique, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, TGA-DTA and photoluminescence spectra. The effect of annealing temperature on the crystallization and luminescence properties has been studied. The main emission position is centered at 611nm
(⁵D₀ → ⁷F₂). Photoluminescence spectra indicate that fluorescence capability improves with increase in temperature.