The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between arch stiffness and relative regional impulse during walking, running, and stopping. A total of 61 asymptomatic male subjects volunteered to participate in the study. All were classified by calculating the arch stiffness index using 3-dimensional foot morphological scanning. Plantar pressure distribution data were collected from participants using a Footscan pressure platform during gait tests that included walking, running, and gait termination. The stiff arches group (n = 19) and flexible arches group (n = 17) were included in the following data analysis. The results suggested that subjects with stiffer arches had a larger and smaller percentage of plantar impulse in the forefoot and rearfoot, respectively, than subjects with more flexible arches during walking and running. However, during gait termination, which included planned and unplanned gait stopping, the plantar impulse distribution pattern was found to be reversed. The current findings demonstrate that the distributional changes of plantar loading follow unidirectional transfer between the forefoot and the rearfoot on the plantar longitudinal axis. Moreover, the patterns of impulse distribution are also different based on different gait task mechanisms.
The medial longitudinal arch is considered as an essential feature which distinguishes humans from other primates. The longitudinal arch plays a supporting and buffering role in human daily physical activities. However, bad movement patterns could lead to deformation of arch morphology, resulting in foot injuries. The authors aimed to investigate any alterations in static and dynamic arch index following different weight bearings. A further aim was to analyze any changes in plantar pressure distribution characteristics on gait during walking and stopping, Twelve males were required to complete foot morphology scans and three types of gait tests with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of additional body weight. The dynamic gait tests included walking, planned and unplanned gait termination. Foot morphology details and plantar pressure data were collected from subjects using the Easy-Foot-Scan and Footscan pressure platform. No significant differences were observed in static arch index when adding low levels of additional body weight (10%). There were no significant changes observed in dynamic arch index when loads were added in the range of 20% to 30%, except in unplanned gait termination. Significant maximal pressure increases were observed in the rearfoot during walking and in both the forefoot and rearfoot during planned gait termination. In addition, significant maximum pressure increases were shown in the lateral forefoot and midfoot during unplanned gait termination when weight was increased. Findings from the study indicated that excessive weight bearing could lead to a collapse of the arch structure and, therefore, increases in plantar loading. This may result in foot injuries, especially during unplanned gait termination.
Human toes are crucial for vertical jumping performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the acute effect of hallux abduction manipulation on foot inter-segment kinematic alterations and plantar loading redistribution during the countermovement jump (CMJ). Thirteen participants were recruited to join in this experiment, for the collection of the foot inter-segment kinematics and plantar pressure data. During the take-off phase, the contact area presented a significant increase while the pressure-time integral decreased in the second metatarsal (M2), whilst the third metatarsal (M3) and fourth metatarsal (M4) decreased significantly in pressure-time integral with Toe-Manipulation (TM). During the landing phase, maximum force and peak pressure were smaller in the big toe (BT) after hallux abduction manipulation. HXFFA (hallux-forefoot angle) showed a greater pronation after manipulation in the frontal plane (0%−26% and 50%−100%) with p = 0.002 and p < 0.001. In the transverse plane, the smaller adductions were found during 62%−82% in take-off and 62%−91% in landing (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a redistributed plantar loading during the landing phase from the medial to lateral forefoot. However, a reduced hallux range of motion in the TM session was exhibited, compared to Non-Toe-Manipulation (NTM).
AbstractRunning gait patterns have implications for revealing the causes of injuries between higher-mileage runners and low-mileage runners. However, there is limited research on the possible relationships between running gait patterns and weekly running mileages. In recent years, machine learning algorithms have been used for pattern recognition and classification of gait features to emphasize the uniqueness of gait patterns. However, they all have a representative problem of being a black box that often lacks the interpretability of the predicted results of the classifier. Therefore, this study was conducted using a Deep Neural Network (DNN) model and Layer-wise Relevance Propagation (LRP) technology to investigate the differences in running gait patterns between higher-mileage runners and low-mileage runners. It was found that the ankle and knee provide considerable information to recognize gait features, especially in the sagittal and transverse planes. This may be the reason why high-mileage and low-mileage runners have different injury patterns due to their different gait patterns. The early stages of stance are very important in gait pattern recognition because the pattern contains effective information related to gait. The findings of the study noted that LRP completes a feasible interpretation of the predicted results of the model, thus providing more interesting insights and more effective information for analyzing gait patterns.
DOI : 10.1038/s41598-022-07054-1
ISSN: 2045-2322 Sayı: 1 Cilt: 12
Backward jump-landing during sports performance will result in dynamic postural instability with a greater risk of injury, and most research studies have focused on forward landing. Differences in kinematic temporal characteristics between single-leg and double-leg backward jump-landing are seldom researched and understood. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze lower extremity kinematic differences throughout the landing phases of forward and backward jumping using single-leg and double-leg landings (FS and BS, FD and BD). Kinematic data were collected during the landing phases of FS and BS, FD and BD in 45 participants. Through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis, we found that the BS showed smaller hip and knee flexion and greater vertical ground reactive force (VGRF) than the FS during 0–37.42% (p = 0.031), 16.07–32.11% (p = 0.045), and 23.03–17.32% (p = 0.041) landing phases. The BD showed smaller hip and knee flexion than the FD during 0–20.66% (p = 0.047) and 0–100% (p < 0.001) landing phases. Most differences appeared within a time frame during the landing phase at 30–50 ms in which non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are thought to occur and are consistent with the identification of risk in biomechanical analysis. A landing strategy that consciously increases the knee and hip flexion angles during backward landing should be considered for people as a measure to avoid injury during the performance of this type of physical activity.