The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in eastern China marks the boundary between the Yangtze Block and the North China Block. Here we investigate a suite of volcanic rocks from Lingshan Island in the Sulu belt comprising rhyolite, trachyte, trachyandesite and basaltic trachyandesite. We present petrological, geochemical and zircon UPb ages and HfO isotope data with a view to gain insights on the petrogenesis and tectonic implications. SHRIMP II analyses of zircon grains from the rhyolite yield 206Pb/238U age of 127.6 ± 1.3 Ma and LA-MC-ICP-MS dating show 126.3 ± 1.2 Ma and 127.3 ± 1.1 Ma, together constraining the eruption time as Early Cretaceous. LA-MC-ICP-MS analyses of zircon grains from the andesitic rocks yield 206Pb/238U ages of 129.0 ± 1.6 Ma, 129.8 ± 1.5 Ma and 130.9 ± 1.0 Ma. Geochemically, the rhyolite shows shoshonitic features with low MgO and Cr, but high Na2O + K2O. The zircon grains from these rocks yield negative εHf(t) values and low δ18O values, and these together with the presence of Neoproterozoic inherited zircons suggest that the magma source involved melting of the Yangtze crust. The andesitic rocks, including basaltic trachyandesite, trachyandesite and trachyte, show a wide range of SiO2, Mg# values, and Cr, enriched in LILE and LREE, depleted in HFSE (Nb, Ta and Ti), and have significantly negative zircon εHf(t) values, suggesting derivation from subcontinental lithosphere mantle that was metasomatized by felsic melts. Our results, integrated with those from previous studies suggest heterogeneous magma involving the mixing of mantle and crustal sources within an extensional setting in the Early Cretaceous.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lithos.2018.05.009 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Petrogenesis, Early cretaceous, Rhyolite, Andesitic rocks, Lingshan Island
ISSN: 0024-4937 Cilt: 312-313 Sayfa: 244-257
Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.
DOI : 10.3897/zookeys.507.6970
Cilt: 507 Sayfa: 99 - 114
Sparganosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the spargana of Spirometra, and snake is one of the important intermediate hosts of spargana. In some areas of China, snake is regarded as popular delicious food, and such a food habit potentially increases the prevalence of human sparganosis. To understand the prevalence of Spirometra in snakes in food markets, we conducted a study in two representative cities (Guangzhou and Shenzhen), during January–August 2013. A total of 456 snakes of 13 species were examined and 251 individuals of 10 species were infected by Spirometra, accounting for 55.0% of the total samples. The worm burden per infected snake ranged from 1 to 213, and the prevalence in the 13 species was 0∼96.2%. More than half (58.1%) of the spargana were located in muscular tissue, 25.6% in subcutaneous tissue, and 16.3% in coelomic cavity. The results indicated that Spirometra severely infected snakes in food markets in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, implying that eating snakes has great health risk and improper cooking methods may increase the risk of Spirometra infection in humans in China. Additional steps should be considered by the governments and public health agencies to prevent the risk of snake-associated Spirometra infections in humans.
Manis javanica has been listed as a critically endangered species by IUCN due to over commercial harvesting (for food and medicine) and international trade. Identifying the species and sources of M. javanica in markets is important for resource conservation and trade controls. Mitochondrial DNA is a powerful molecular marker for species identification, phylogeography analysis, population genetics research and evolutionary studies. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of M. javanica. The full length of the complete mitochondrial DNA was 16,576 bp. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The tRNA genes fold into the expected cloverleaf secondary structures with normal base pairing, except the tRNASer(AGN) which lost the stem of DHC loop. This investigation provides complete mitochondrial genome of M. javanica which is an effective molecular tool for the genetic research and protection of this endangered species.
Well CSDP-2 is a fully coring deep drilling hole, penetrating the thick Paleozoic marine strata in the South Yellow Sea Basin (SYSB) in the lower Yangtze Block (LYB). Based on the petrological and geochemical analysis of 40 sandstone samples from the core CSDP-2, the provenance and tectonic features of Paleozoic detrital rocks from SYSB are analyzed and systematically delineated in this article. The results show that the Silurian–Carboniferous sandstones are mature sublitharenite, while the Permian sandstones are unstable feldspathic litharenite. The average CIA (chemical index of alteration) is 74.61, which reflects these sediments were derived from source rocks with moderate chemical weathering. The REE (rare earth element) patterns are characterized by LREE enrichment, flat HREE and obviously negative Eu anomaly, which are similar to that of the upper continental crust. Dickinson QFL discrimination results indicate the recycled orogeny provenance. Various diagrams for the discrimination of sedimentary provenance based on major and trace element data show all the sediments were derived predominantly from quartz sedimentary rocks, of which the Permian strata contain more felsic sedimentary rocks. Geochemical data for these detrital rocks suggest they occur at the passive continental margin and island arc settings, and the Permian sandstone presents active continental margin setting.
The Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonics of Northeastern China involves complex multistage interaction of different tectonic domains and has long been controversial. The tectono-thermal evolutionary history recorded by the widespread outcropped granitoids in the Great Xing’an Range (GXR) may provide significant constraints on the tectonics, illuminating the deep geodynamic process. Here, we present new low-temperature thermochronology data from the GXR, and thus, reconstruct the detailed thermal history. Zircon fission-track dating yielded a group of central ages ranging from 80 ± 4 to 185 ± 10 Ma, while apatite fission-track ages range from 55 ± 3 to 75 ± 5 Ma. The modeled time–temperature paths of all the samples reveal two relatively rapid cooling events at ~100–60 Ma and ~50–0 Ma, and one intervening reheating episode at ~60–50 Ma. The initial uplift, exhumation, and induced cooling events, which represent strong orogenic activity, are related mainly to closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean in the north and were subsequently influenced by the Paleo-Pacific plate subduction in the east. The evolution of the basin–mountain system consisting of the Songliao Basin and GXR, as well as the accretion, metamorphism, and magmatism at the Northeast Asian continental margin, are all dominated or indirectly influenced by the Paleo-Pacific subduction. This indicates that the Paleo-Pacific subduction had affected the evolution of the GXR to the west since the Jurassic. The significant reheating episode during the Late Paleocene to Eocene may be related to the heat flux derived from asthenosphere upwelling and igneous activity.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jseaes.2019.104155
ISSN: 1367-9120 Cilt: 189 Sayfa: 104155
Serpentinites from Junan (JN), Rizhao (RZ), and Rongcheng (RC) in the Sulu ultra-high-pressure (UHP) terrane, China, were analysed for U–Pb zircon geochronology, mineral chemistry, whole-rock major and trace element chemistry (including rare-earth elements (REEs) and platinum-group elements (PGEs)), and Re–Os isotopes, in order to better constrain their petrogenesis and geodynamic process. The serpentinite zircons yield two age groups: 731 ± 10 to 780 ± 10 Ma for relic magmatic zircon cores, which may indicate early crystallization and emplacement of the peridotite in the Yangtze crust, and 209 ± 2 to 218 ± 3 Ma for metamorphic zircon, which coincides with Triassic UHP metamorphism. The spinels in the serpentinites exhibit significant Cr# variation (0.6–0.91) and have undergone multi-stage metamorphism. The serpentinites are characterized by enrichment in incompatible trace elements, low Ni and IPGE concentrations, and high Pd/Ir ratios, and the bulk-rock major elements plot in the ultramafic cumulate region. Their Re and Os concentrations are similar to those of typical orogenic peridotite, but they have high 187Os/ 188Os ratios (0.12433–0.14423). We believe that the serpentinite’s protolith consisted of cumulates from an asthenosphere-derived melt that intruded into the continental crust of the Yangtze craton in the Neoproterozoic. These cumulates were later subducted and metamorphosed during the subduction of the Yangtze craton in the Triassic. The serpentinites underwent melt–rock interactions and fluid enrichment, both prior to and during serpentinization.
The outbreak of a novel corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the city of Wuhan, China has resulted in more than 1.7 million laboratory confirmed cases all over the world. Recent studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 was likely originated from bats, but its intermediate hosts are still largely unknown. In this study, we assembled the complete genome of a coronavirus identified in 3 sick Malayan pangolins. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses showed that this pangolin coronavirus (pangolin-CoV-2020) is genetically related to the SARS-CoV-2 as well as a group of bat coronaviruses but do not support the SARS-CoV-2 emerged directly from the pangolin-CoV-2020. Our study suggests that pangolins are natural hosts of Betacoronaviruses. Large surveillance of coronaviruses in pangolins could improve our understanding of the spectrum of coronaviruses in pangolins. In addition to conservation of wildlife, minimizing the exposures of humans to wildlife will be important to reduce the spillover risks of coronaviruses from wild animals to humans.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421
Cilt: 16 Sayı: 5 Sayfa: e1008421
The Bohai Sea is a typical shelf sea, with obvious sediment differences in different regions. Although Liaodong Bay is the largest bay in the Bohai Sea, there lacks boreholes with precise dating. In this paper, the core sediments taken from YKC-2 borehole in the northeastern of Liaodong Bay are dated with AMS14C and OSL, in addition to grain size analysis, foraminifera and pollen identification, lithological characteristics and other testing results. Correlation is made with the global sea level change curve, and upon the basis the evolution of paleoenvironment in the northeast of Liaodong Bay is reconstructed. It is speculated that the age of the bottom of borehole YKC-2 is 150 kyr B.P., and two transgressions have been recorded, similar to the situation in JXC-1, a borehole 46.7 km to the west. It can be found that the sedimentation rate of YKC-2 borehole is obviously higher than that of JXC-1. The authors’ research found that it is mainly controlled by two factors: the provenance difference and the differential movement of basin controlling faults. In the west, sediments are mainly transported by the Bohai Sea current, with insufficient sediment supply, and the basin-controlling faults are rather stable and very weak in activity. In the east, sediments are transported mainly by the surrounding rivers with sufficient sediment supply; and the changes in accommodation space are under the control of the Tan-Lu fault zone. Affected by the strong extensional dynamic environment of the Bohai Bay Basin, the accommodation space, where the borehole YKC-2 is located, continuously increased for deposition of near-source river sediments. This article is an endeavor to study the evolution of the Late Quaternary sedimentary environment and the influence of tectonic activity on Quaternary sedimentation in the Bohai Sea.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rsma.2022.102581 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Sedimentary differences, Paleoenvironment, Provenance, Active faults
ISSN: 2352-4855 Sayfa: 102581
Wild-caught snakes are a popular and traditional food in China. However, little known to the public, snakes are also intermediate hosts of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, a food- and water-borne pathogen of sparganosis. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of S. erinaceieuropaei in 10 popular species of wild-caught snakes in Guangzhou City (Guangdong Province) between July 2009 and July 2010. One hundred and twenty-four specimens of 10 species (including Enhydris plumbea, Zoacys dhumnades, Elaphe radiate, Elaphe taeniura, Elaphe carinata, Ptyas mucosus, Ptyas korros, Naja naja atra, Bungarus fasciatus, and Bungarus multicinctus) were randomly selected from a total of 1,160 wild-caught snakes. They were obtained from food markets in 5 representative districts (Huadou, Panyu, Tianhe, Haizhu, and Conghua). The specimens were killed, necropsied, and examined for parasitic helminths. Of the snakes examined, 29.8% were infected by spargana and the worm burden per infected snake ranged from 1 to 221. Most species were infected except for En. plumbea, B. fasciatus, and B. multicinctus. Prevalence even reached 100% in Zoacys dhumnades. More than half (53.5%) of the spargana were located in muscular tissue, 36.4% in subcutaneous tissue, and 10.1% in the coelomic cavity. The study revealed the potential risk for the zoonotic sparganosis by eating wild-caught snakes and will be helpful in arousing public health concern about the consumption of snake meat.
Cilt: 97 Sayı: 1 Sayfa: pp. 170-171 Yayın Tarihi: 2011-02-01 ISSN: 0022-3395