Pseudomonas viridiflava is one of the causal agents of tomato stem necrosis in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. The bacterium causes general wilting, yellowing of tomato plants, dark blotches on the pruning sites of the stem, browning, and hollowing of the pith.P. viridiflava strains, isolated from Antakya and Mersin, were identified by traditional methods and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For indirect-ELISA, polyclonal antisera were produced against a regional isolate ofP. viridiflava (AD-OZ 3a). Using indirect-ELISA, the pathogenic bacterium was identified rapidly and safely from both pure culture and inoculated plants in 2 days. There was no cross reaction with other stem necrosis pathogens. With indirect-ELISA, the lower limit forP. viridiflava detection in pure culture was 103 colony-forming units per milliliter.
Immunoreactive Trypsinogen (IRT) is a protein-based pancreatic proenzyme that has an important role in protein digestion in humans. In human body, once IRT present in the small intestine, the proteolytic cleavage activates trypsinogen into trypsin. When IRT is in the active form, it is capable to cleave antibodies, other proteins and even itself while it is desired to use in immunoassays. According to the literature, there are three important IRT isoforms called Immunoreactive Trypsinogen 1 (IRT1), Immunoreactive Trypsinogen 2 (IRT2), and Immunoreactive Trypsinogen 3 (IRT3). However, trypsinogen 1 (cationic trypsinogen, IRT1) and trypsinogen 2 (anionic trypsinogen, IRT2) are the major isoforms in human pancreatic juice and used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, it is aimed to restrain its proteolytic activity with K23D mutation, which changes lysine (K) residue at the 23rd position to aspartic acid (D). Because we wanted to produce a hassle-free human recombinant immune reactive trypsinogen proenzyme which has similar antigenic properties with the native form. It is also aimed that the mutant IRTs do not exhibit proteolytic activity for the development of durable detection kits with a longer shelf life for both two isoforms. The innovation was actualized in order to use IRTs as a standard antigen in Immunoassays such as ELISA kits. The gene was synthesized as mutated and expressed in P. pastoris X-33 strain. The loss of proteolytic activity has been proven with the BAEE test. Antigenic properties of K23D IRTs and the effect of proteolytic inactivation on their performance in immunoassays were assessed with ELISA and Western Blot. In ELISA results K23D mutated IRTs showed higher signals than Wild-Type forms.
The CagA protein one of the key virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer diseases. Unfortunately the cagA gene status can only be determined by PCR while serology is an alternative approach to detect antigens or antibodies. Our aim is to detect the CagA antigen in sera of infected subjects by the development of an in-house capture ELISA test. Gastric antral biopsies and serum samples were collected from 63 patients. PCR was used to determine the cagA status. Our previously developed recombinant CagA protein and monoclonal antibody were used for setting up the capture ELISA test. H. pylori positive [(38 gastritis, 14 duodenal ulcers (DU), 11 gastric ulcer (GU)] patients were determined by PCR. The cagA gene was detected in 21 (55%) of gastritis, 11 (78%) of DU and 7 (60%) of GU patients. The reagents used in setting up the capture ELISA test following optimization displayed high performance. This study showed that our developed in-house capture ELISA has the potential to detect the CagA antigen at very low concentrations even though not detected in our H. pylori infected patients sera but we are also intended to use it in saliva and stool samples.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide health problem. More than 400 million people are chronic HBV carriers in the world. Infected individuals are at a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as the main consequences of HBV. The discoveries of fast diagnostic systems and new therapeutic applications are crucial in the fight against viral hepatitis. In this paper we present the generation of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) from a mouse monoclonal antibody specific to the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and demonstrate its expression as a bacterial alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein. In this study, we constructed scFvs from hybridoma cells expressing HBsAg-specific antibody using phage display technology and expressed them in Escherichia coli. The anti-HBsAg scFvs were inserted into pQE-2 vector to produce scFv antibody genetically fused to bacterial AP. Reproducibility of the recombinant HBsAg-scFv fusion protein was tested using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Present preliminary findings indicate that the anti-HBsAg-scFv AP conjugate could be further used for the development of one-step ELISA for the detection of HBV.
In December 2019 a novel coronavirus was detected in Wuhan City of Hubei Province-China. Owing to a high rate of transmission from human to human, the new virus called SARS-CoV-2 differed from others by its unexpectedly rapid spread. The World Health Organization (WHO) described the most recent coronavirus epidemic as a global pandemic in March 2020. The virus spread triggered a health crisis (the COVID-19 disease) within three months, with socioeconomic implications. No approved targeted-therapies are available for COVID-19, yet. However, it is foreseen that antibody-based treatments may provide an immediate cure for patients. Current neutralizing antibody development studies primarily target the S protein among the structural elements of SARS-CoV-2, which mediates the cell entry of the virus through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor of host cells. This review aims to provide some of the neutralizing antibody development strategies for SARS-CoV-2 and in vitro and in vivo neutralization assays.
DOI : 10.3906/biy-2005-91
Sayi :44 issue :3 Sayfa :203-214