DOI : 10.1515/noise-2016-0019 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Architecture and Design, Architecture, Urbanism, Business and Economics, Business Management, Industries, Environmental Management, Physics, Physics, other
Ten years after the approval of the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) a large experience have been acquired to develop noise maps and action plans: the Noise Observation and Information Service for Europe maintained by the European Environment Agency (EEA) on behalf of the European Commission contains all data delivered in accordance with the END by Members States within the first round of implementation of the END. This large database should be useful to evaluate the pollution of Europe and to guide policy makers to establish best practices. However, local procedures and national methods do not permit a direct comparison of data reported. A comparison within agglomerations in EU is here carried out in order to find suitable indicators to identify most polluted cities despite different methods used. Critical and quiet areas have been assessed in action plans, but national laws and requirements are various, as different indicators used for their identification. The analysis was performed on noise exposure classes distribution, grouping them together using Gden and Gnight indicators to offer a new tool for presenting noise maps of the cities to the public permitting their comparison and for drawing detailed action plans. Strong relationship between these indicators and highly annoyed and highly sleep-disturbed people percentages are obtained. Furthermore, a comparison between Gden and Qcity Noise Scoring for local hot spot identification is carried out for the agglomeration of Pisa, where different transportation noise sources are present. The final goal is to define faster methods for suitable indicators calculation in hot spot identifications.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.014 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Noise mapping, European cities noise exposure, Hot spots, Action plans, END
Cilt: 482-483 Sayı: 0 Sayfa: 411-419 ISSN: 0048-9697
With the increasing installation of wind farms, the attention of citizens towards wind turbine noise (WTN) has grown. Differently from some national legislations, the scientific community has promptly responded, increasing the studies and the social surveys in order to better understand the cause of disturbance and the indicators that relate to it. At first, the paper underlines the importance of low WTN levels for indirect health effects such as sleep disturbance and annoyance. The importance to consider noise annoyance in legislation is also discussed, as WTN is more disturbing than other most common noise sources. Then, conversion curves for equally highly annoyed are introduced considering the annoyance perceived by population in relation with the type of source. Finally, a specific limit value of 43 dB(A) for WTN is derived and suggested, comparable with British and Danish standards.
In the vast majority of legislation on environmental noise, the metric used for expressing limit values is based on sound pressure levels. But some countries have introduced sound emergence limit values where the compliance of a noise-generating activity is defined as a maximum allowable difference between the sound pressure level with and without the regulated activity operating. This paper investigates the foundations and the merits of this kind of differential noise limit values. Our review of literature indicates that there is very little evidence supporting the use of differential noise limits over absolute ones. Moreover, while sound emergence limits seem to originate from consideration about audibility of the regulated noise source, they appear to give little insight into what is audible and what is not. Furthermore, both the definition and the practical measurement of sound emergence raise several challenges that compromise reproducibility. In addition, first, the reference to background noise makes it very difficult first to ascertain the conformity of noisy installations in the long run, second to effectively protect the community from excessive noise and third to evaluate conformity on the basis of simulations. When switching to another metric is not an option the paper makes recommendations toward a more reliable use of sound emergence.
Noise barriers are the most widespread solution to mitigate noise produced by the continuous growth of vehicular traffic, thus reducing the large number of people exposed to it and avoiding unpleasant effects on health. However, conventional noise barriers present the well-known issues related to the diffraction at the edges which reduces the net insertion loss, to the reflection of sound energy in the opposite direction, and to the complaints of citizens due to the reduction of field of view, natural light, and air flow. In order to avoid these shortcomings and maximize noise abatement, recent research has moved toward the development of sonic crystals as noise barriers. A previous review found in the literature was focused on the theoretical aspects of the propagation of sound through crystals. The present work on the other hand reviews the latest studies concerning the practical application of sonic crystal as noise barriers, especially for road traffic noise mitigation. The paper explores and compares the latest developments reported in the scientific literature, focused on integrating Bragg’s law properties with other mitigation effects such as hollow scatterers, wooden or recycled materials, or porous coating. These solutions could increase the insertion loss and frequency band gap, while inserting the noise mitigation action in a green and circular economy. The pros and cons of sonic crystal barriers will also be discussed, with the aim of finding the best solution that is actually viable, as well as stimulating future research on the aspects requiring improvement.
Aircraft noise immission level during the initial phase of take-off is influenced by several parameters, which often produce a significant fluctuation on measured noise levels at the noise monitoring terminal. This fluctuation is not only due to the different aircraft involved in the process, but it is also strongly dependent on the operational settings and characteristics of each take-off, even when the same aircraft type is analysed. The goal of this study is to investigate the relationships between the operational characteristics of flight departure and aircraft noise by means of a statistical approach in order to identify the parameters on which pilots could take action for noise-reduction purposes. The operational settings considered in the present work include actual take-off weight and ground run distance, lift-off aircraft ground speed and ground speed during the initial climb phase. Other variables, for instance source-receiver distance and weather conditions, such as air temperature, air density and headwind were also included in the analysis. The above mentioned parameters of B737-800 flight-departures were collected respectively during 15 days of July 2015 and September 2016. The data collected during the first session is the training set, while the second sample is the test set. Each sample of both datasets was joined with the corresponding noise level provided by the noise monitoring network. Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression were performed in order to derive a simplified predictive noise model at a specific point on the ground. This method produced a good Sound Exposure Level estimation. The findings may also be useful to point out the operational characteristics causing the noisiest aircraft flyovers. Consequently, scheduled flight departures could be re-organized by introducing departure-direction and/or departure performance restrictions in order to minimize noise impact on the urban areas.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apacoust.2017.12.024 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Aircraft-noise prediction, Principal Component Analysis, Aircraft noise, Noise modelling, Noise abatement measures, ADS-B systems
Cilt: 134 Sayı: 0 Sayfa: 8-15 ISSN: 0003-682X
Il rumore è fra le maggiori fonti di disturbo ai cittadini risedenti nelle vicinanze di turbine eoliche. Indicatori di impatto semplici e affidabili sono di notevole interesse in fase di pianificazione territoriale, di autorizzazione e per linformazione al pubblico. Si riporta lo studio di un indicatore di degrado acustico che consideri la variazione dei livelli di rumore ed il disturbo arrecato ai residenti (DALY e annoyance). Lindicatore è stato sperimentato sui 10 siti utilizzando il modello ISO 9613-2 e NORD2000. Lindicatore permette di valutare il degrado acustico derivante da scelte pianificatorie e può fornire unimmediata informazione al pubblico. ------ Wind turbine noise causes annoyance for citizens. Summarizing the relevant information with simple and reliable impact indicators is of remarkable interest during planning, authorization process and for public information. The present work shows the results in the development of a sound degradation indicator taking into account the change in noise levels and the disturbance to residents (DALY and annoyance). The indicator was tested on 10 wind sites using the ISO 9613-2 and NORD2000 noise models. The indicator developed enables to assess the possible sound degradation resulting from various planning decisions and resulted to be a useful tool to provide immediate information to the public.
Compared to the other relevant noise sources such as railways, roads, and airplanes, the regulation regarding port noise is lagging behind. The absence of specific laws is likely one of the main causes of the increasingly high number of complaints reported by the citizens living nearby the ports. At the same time, scientific literature concerning the impact of port noise and its mitigation is not so widespread and only a few studies are available at the moment. However, the volume of maritime traffic has increased in the last years and consequently, Port Authorities are required to assess the impact of port operations on the city soundscape without using specific directives or guidelines. In this context, the INTERREG Maritime programme projects RUMBLE, MON ACUMEN, and REPORT aim to fill this gap, by investigating the state-of-the-art of port noise in the north Tyrrhenian sea and developing helpful instruments. Data were collected via a survey sent to the Port Authorities, local environmental protection agencies and universities involved in the projects. The survey was focused on monitoring systems, previous measurement campaigns, noise maps, and citizens’ complaints already taken. The results confirmed both a lack of awareness among residents and authorities and the absence of actions aimed at reducing port noise. In this framework, the difficulties encountered by the Port Authorities in managing the ports sustainably are highlighted. An underestimation of citizens’ exposure to noise in port areas could be expected.
Compton Tomographic Imaging, using external sources and gamma camera, has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for producing 3-D images of the density distribution of the chest The design aspects of the TomoCompton and the algorithm applied for correcting the acquired tomograms for both geometrical and physical attenuation are described In vitro and in vivo studies are reported Finally, a possible application of the TomoCompton in the area of object defects recognition is examined
In the light of sustainability, satisfactory living conditions is an important factor for people’s positive feedback in their own living environment. Acoustic comfort and noise exposure should then be carefully monitored in all human settlements. Furthermore, it is already well-known that high or prolonged noise levels may lead to unwanted health effects. Unfortunately, while in the last decades scientists and public authorities have investigated the noise produced by roads, trains, and airports, not enough efforts have been spent in studying what happens around the coastal and port areas. Following the attention brought to the subject by recent European projects on noise in port areas, the present paper characterizes the sound power level and 1/3 octave band sound power spectrum of seagoing ships while moving at low speeds. Five different categories have been distinguished: Roll-on/roll-off (RORO), container ship, oil tanker, chemical tanker, and ferry. The analysis is based on a continuous noise measurement lasting more than three months, performed in the industrial canal of the port of Livorno (Italy). The resulting noise emissions are new and useful data that could be inserted in acoustic propagation models to properly assess the noise in the areas affected by port activities. Thus, the present work can act as a supporting tool in planning ship traffic in ports towards better sustainability.
During a survey related to acoustic and visual perception of users of urban areas, 614 people have been interviewed in Pisa (Italy). The work aims to identify and quantify the effects of parameters influencing the perception of tranquillity in order to understand the soundscape and to propose a method based on the perception of tranquillity for the detection of quiet areas within urban ones. A linear model that predicts the tranquillity perceived in different environments, based on their visual and acoustic characteristics, is proposed. Users were interviewed by operators inside the areas, using a direct approach of standardized questionnaires and oral questions. Simultaneous noise measurements and soundwalks have been performed, together with visual registrations. The linear model obtained predicts the perceived tranquillity based on the statistical level LA10 (A-weighted noise level exceeded for 10% of the measurement time) the sound sources and visual elements. The perceived tranquillity results negatively correlated to LA10 and to the presence of sound sources or negative visual elements. The presence of beneficial sound sources is positively correlated to the perceived tranquillity. However, the effect of the noise level is regulated by environmental characteristics. Perceived tranquillity is proposed as an indicator to identify quiet areas in the urban environment, according to European Directive 49/2002/EC. The obtained model identifies the areas that would get a higher tranquillity value than a fixed threshold value and therefore would be perceived as quiet. The model can be used as a cost-benefit analysis support tool to identify the best solution between the reduction of noise levels and the regeneration of urban areas, referring to the tranquillity perceived by the users.
The European Noise Directive 2002/49/EC requires to draw up noise action plans. Most of the implemented solutions consist in using barriers, even if some studies evidenced that annoyance could increase after their installation. This action dumps the high frequencies, decreasing the masking effect on low ones. Therefore, people annoyance and complaints may increase despite the mitigation. This can happen even in pedestrian zones near main roads due to the screening effect of first buildings row.
A loudspeaker can be seen as a device coupling different acoustic, mechanic and electric systems by a series of impedance adaptations. A simple model can thus allow the determination of the acoustic impedance seen by the speaker membrane from measuring the electric impedance of the device. Given a certain number of assumption on mechanical modes and on the strictly electric components, this approach in principle is valid through a wide frequency range. Applying this method with a loudspeaker or a similar device allows to perform acoustic impedance measurements, as shown by Ahadi and Bakhtiar in a previous work. Unfortunately, when trying to apply straightforwardly this method, many difficulties arise. In this paper, using a FEM simulation of a loudspeaker in specific mounting conditions, critical aspects are highlighted to improve the range of application of the measurement technique. Moreover, the role of the speaker’ s geometry is separately analysed and possible methods to overcome the limitations of the measuring method are provided. Further developments will be necessary to deal with time varying and nonlinear properties of the speaker.
The “Galileo Galilei” airport is a civil and military airport quite close to central Pisa. Although the airport brings benefits in terms of tourism and different types of income, the air traffic growth exacerbates the exposition to aircraft noise. This could significantly affect public health. To this day, a small number of studies takes into account the standard indicators of Europe by considering noise emission data for military aircrafts. We estimated the noise impact produced by the airport and we evaluated the related exposed population by using the Integrated Noise Model (INM). The noise power levels of both commercial and military flights have been considered as an input to the model. Predicted levels were validated by means of a noise-monitoring network. A new tracking system (AirNav Radar) that captures Automatic Identification System (AIS) signals emitted by each aircraft has been used to emulate takeoff and landing procedures. This improves the accuracy of the input to the model. We simulated noise maps for present and future scenarios, including those following the application of noise reduction measures. For each situation, we also estimated the exposure of the population and the percentages of highly annoyed and highly sleep disturbed people. We show the utility of AIS data and their specific elaboration to draw up noise abatement measures in order to reduce the noise impact on population and allow the airport development.
The European directive 2002/49/EC requires noise maps as step before designing action plans. Due to economical constraints a priority scale of mitigation actions is needed and, for this purpose, the Italian legislation established a methodology based on the exceeding of the limits and the amount of population exposed to such exceeding. This paper proposes a new method, named Multi Annoyance Building Prioritisation Score (MABPS), aimed to take into account the annoyance due to the exposure from different sources (multiexposure). The proposed method is a modification of the Scottish Building Prioritisation Score (BPS), shortly described in the paper too. To test the MABPS method, the case study of strategic noise map of Pisa was considered. All the noise levels from airport, roads, railways and industries were calculated and limits and advantages of the method are discussed by comparing the MABPS index with the Italian and Scottish ones, also in the perspective of a standardized procedure. The results show significant differences between MABPS and the other methods, especially because the former considers a larger number of buildings to be included into the action plan and, at this stage, no weightings are applied to take account of the building use.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apacoust.2010.07.007 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Noise mapping, Action plan, Community noise
Cilt: 72 Sayı: 8 Sayfa: 505-510 ISSN: 0003-682X
I cetacei sfruttano il suono come strumento di comunicazione e di visione subacquea, ma ora si trovano ad affrontare un ambiente alterato dallinquinamento acustico dovuto ad attività umane. L’implementazione della direttiva sulla marine strategy è stata l’occasione per raccogliere i dati acustici presenti in Italia, nonchè per definire le criticità esistenti. Sono qui presentati i risultati del progetto Gionha per la ricostruzione modellistica del rumore sottomarino nell’alto tirreno e gli osservatori sottomarini multidisciplinari realizzati nel mar Ionio. Essi hanno permesso lo studio dei cetacei e la misura del rumore di fondo, sia diffuso che causato da singole navi in transito. ------ Cetaceans use sound as a tool of communication and underwater vision, but now they face an environment altered by noise pollution due to human activities. The implementation of Marine Strategy Framework Directive, has offered the opportunity of collecting acoustic data present in Italy, as well as to define the existing weaknesses. We present the results of the GIONHA project for the underwater noise modelling in the high Tyrrhenian and the submarine multidisciplinary observatories installed in the Ionian Sea. They have allowed innovative studies on cetaceans and on background noise, either diffuse or produced by individual ships in transit.
Lo scopo del lavoro è stato quello di sviluppare un profilometro per misure di tessitura stradale, al fine di studiarne la correlazione con il rumore di rotolamento. Il software di analisi è basato su una procedura che permette anche una stima dell’incertezza di misura. Sono state analizzate misure di tessitura e di rumore ottenuto col metodo CPX su diversi tipi di pavimentazione, e sono stati studiati alcuni modelli, tenendo conto del concetto di tessitura efficace. --- The purpose of this work was to develop a laser profilometer focused on the measurement of texture of road pavements, in order to study its correlation with rolling noise. The elaboration software is based on a procedure that yields information about uncertainties of measurements. The analysis has involved road texture measurements and rolling noise measured according to the CPX method on different pavements; several models have been studied, taking into account tyre envelopment of road texture.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
tessitura stradale, rumore da rotolamento, metodo CPX, road texture, rolling noise, CPX method
ISSN: 2385-2615 Cilt: 42 Sayı: 1-2 Sayfa: 1 - 16
In almost all urban contexts and in many extra-urban conurbations, where road traffic is the main noise pollution source, the use of barriers is not allowed. In these cases, low-noise road surfaces are the most used mitigation action together with traffic flow reduction. Selecting the optimal surface is only the first problem that the public administration has to face. In the second place, it has to consider the issue of assessing the efficacy of the mitigation action. The purpose of the LEOPOLDO project was to improve the knowledge in the design and the characterization of low-noise road surfaces, producing guidelines helpful to the public administrations. Several experimental road surfaces were tested. Moreover, several measurement methods were implemented aiming to select those that are suitable for a correct assessment of the pavement performances laid as mitigation planning. In this paper, the experience gained in the LEOPOLDO project will be described, focusing on both the measurement methods adopted to assess the performance of a low-noise road surface and the criteria by which the experimental results have to be evaluated, presenting a comparison of the obtained results and their monitoring along time.
The knowledge of the acoustic impedance of a material allows for the calculation of its acoustic absorption. Impedance can also be linked to structural and physical proprieties of materials. However, while the impedance of pavement samples in laboratory conditions can usually be measured with high accuracy using devices such as the impedance tube, complete in-situ evaluation results are less accurate than the laboratory results and is so time consuming that a full scale implementation of in-situ evaluations is practically impossible. Such a system could provide information on the homogeneity and the correct laying of an installation, which is proven to be directly linked to its acoustic emission properties. The present work studies the development of a measurement instrument which can be fastened through holding elements to a moving laboratory (i.e., a vehicle). This device overcomes the issues that afflict traditional in-situ measurements, such as the impossibility to perform a continuous spatial characterization of a given pavement in order to yield a direct evaluation of the surface’s quality. The instrumentation has been uncoupled from the vehicle’s frame with a system including a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller, studied to maintain the system at a fixed distance from the ground and to reduce damping. The stabilization of this device and the measurement system itself are evaluated and compared to the traditional one.
After the European Environmental Noise Directive prescribed noise maps and action plans, wide scientific literature and a consistent number of mitigation strategies emerged for road, railway, airport, and industrial noise. Unfortunately, very little attention has been paid to the noise produced by ports in their surroundings, even though there could be many areas affected by it. At present, more attention seems to be paid to noise produced underwater, mostly for military and security reasons and for its interference with wildlife, rather than airborne noise and its influence on human health. In the framework of a project aiming to shed more light on a topic so far under-investigated, this paper presents an acoustical characterization of different small vessels at various speeds that move around on a daily basis in every type of port, produced by means of short- and long-term measurements. The new information acquired was used to produce a map of noise generated by vessels moving in Livorno’s canals, which branch off in a densely inhabited area. The simulations were validated using long-term measurement. The number of citizens exposed was also estimated and used to calculate the number of highly annoyed people according to the recent curve for road traffic noise proposed by Guski et al. In order to prevent citizen exposure to noise and possible complaints about small boats, different scenarios and possible future situations such as various vessel speeds, limited flow, restricted areas for some categories, or new residential areas were studied.