Portable digital music players are becoming pervasive and the size of personal digital music collections has been steadily increasing (5-10 thousand tracks are common today). The emerging area of music information retrieval (MIR) deals with all aspects of managing, analyzing and organizing music in digital formats. The majority of work in MIR follows a search/retrieval paradigm. More recently, the importance of browsing as an interaction paradigm has been realized and several novel interfaces have been proposed. In this paper, we describe a tangible interface for content-aware browsing of music collections. The radio drum is a gestural interface based on capacitance sensors that can detect the x,y,z positions of two drum sticks in a 3D volume. We describe two possible mappings that can be used for browsing music collections without relying on metadata. The first is an explicit mapping of tempo and beat strength, and the second is a music similarity space using audio feature extraction and a self organizing map (SOM)
DOI : 10.1109/icme.2006.262674 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Music information retrieval, Information analysis, Organizing, Feature extraction, Technological innovation, Feedback, Multiple signal classification, Computer science, Capacitance, Capacitive sensors, feature extraction, gesture recognition, information retrieval, music, musical instruments, object detection, self-organising feature maps, personal digital music collection, music information retrieval, MIR, search-retrieval paradigm, interaction paradigm, tangible interface, content-aware browsing, radio drum, gestural interface, capacitance sensor, drum stick detection, 3D volume, explicit mapping, audio feature extraction, self organizing map, SOM
The predominant melodic source, frequently the singing voice, is an important component of musical signals. In this paper, we describe a method for extracting the predominant source and corresponding melody from ldquoreal-worldrdquo polyphonic music. The proposed method is inspired by ideas from computational auditory scene analysis. We formulate predominant melodic source tracking and formation as a graph partitioning problem and solve it using the normalized cut which is a global criterion for segmenting graphs that has been used in computer vision. Sinusoidal modeling is used as the underlying representation. A novel harmonicity cue which we term harmonically wrapped peak similarity is introduced. Experimental results supporting the use of this cue are presented. In addition, we show results for automatic melody extraction using the proposed approach.
DOI : 10.1109/tasl.2007.909260 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Source separation, Lagrangian functions, Music information retrieval, Image analysis, Multiple signal classification, Statistical analysis, Independent component analysis, Computer vision, Data mining, audio signal processing, graph theory, information retrieval, music, pattern clustering, signal representation, source separation, spectral analysis, predominant melodic source separation, musical signals, graph partitioning problem, normalized cuts, sinusoidal modeling, signal representation, harmonicity cue, automatic melody extraction, computational auditory scene analysis, spectral clustering, polyphonic music, harmonically wrapped peak similarity, music information retrieval, Computational auditory scene analysis (CASA), music information retrieval (MIR), normalized cut, sinusoidal modeling, spectral clustering
ISSN: 1558-7916 1558-7924 Sayı: 2 Cilt: 16 Sayfa: 278-290
The inferior colliculus (IC) is a critical component of the ascending projection system carrying auditory information from the brainstem to the forebrain. Recent evidence indicates that, in addition to its role in auditory processing, the IC can exert a generalized, modulatory effect on the forebrain by activating the neocortical electrocorticogram (ECoG). Given the sparse direct projections from the IC to the cortex, it appears that the effect of the IC to produce ECoG activation is indirect, mediated by one or several neuromodulatory systems that have diffuse access to the entire cortical mantle. However, the anatomical relays that permit the IC to influence cortical activity have not been elucidated. In the present experiments, electrical stimulation of the IC suppressed slow, large amplitude oscillations in the ECoG of urethane anesthetized rats, replacing them with higher-frequency cortical activation. This effect was blocked by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (0.5–1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), suggestive of a critical role of acetylcholine (ACh) release. Consistent with this hypothesis, localized lidocaine infusions (2%, 1 μl) into the cholinergic basal forebrain complex strongly reduced ECoG activation elicited by IC stimulation. To identify additional relays between the IC and basal forebrain, the effects of lidocaine infusions into the superior colliculus, medial prefrontal cortex, midline thalamus, and dorsal raphe were also studied. Inactivation of the superior colliculus and dorsal raphe reduced IC-induced activation, while prefrontal cortex and thalamic infusions were ineffective. Concurrent basal forebrain and raphe inactivation produced effects similar to that of inactivation of the basal forebrain alone, suggesting that these two areas are arranged in series, rather than acting as independent, parallel pathways. These results suggest that the ability of the IC to induce ECoG activation is mediated, in large parts, by the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Consistent with anatomical evidence, the superior colliculus and dorsal raphe appear to provide important links to functionally connect the IC to the basal forebrain, allowing the IC to indirectly access the entire cortical mantle and enhance processing in neocortical networks.
A characteristic of the 7TM-cadherins, Flamingo and Celsr1, is their asymmetric protein distribution and polarized activity at neighboring epithelial cell interfaces along defined axes of planar cell polarity. Here, we describe a novel distribution of Celsr1 protein to the basal surface of neuroepithelial cells within both the early neural tube and a less well-defined group of ventricular zone cells at the midline of the developing spinal cord. Importantly, this basal enrichment is lost in embryos homozygous for a mutant Celsr1 allele. We also demonstrate an intimate association between basal enrichment of Celsr1 protein and dorsal sensory tract morphogenesis, an intriguing spatio-temporal organization of Celsr1 protein along the apico-basal neuroepithelial axis suggestive of multiple Celsr1 protein isoforms and the existence of distinct cell surface Celsr1 protein species with direct signaling potential. Together, these data raise compelling new questions concerning the role of Celsr1 during neural development.
A gap has been identified in the literature regarding available approaches, and instruments, to measure and/or assess the readiness of post-licensure healthcare providers to participate effectively in an interprofessional collaborative healthcare team (ICHT). Globally, major changes are taking place in provision of maternal health care (WHO, 2015). Stillbirths account for over half of all perinatal deaths; and (1/3) of stillbirths take place during delivery, (i.e. are largely avoidable). Intrapartum deaths (i.e. those occurring during delivery) are closely linked to place of, and care at, delivery. In developing countries, just over 40% all deliveries occur in health facilities and little more than half take place with assistance from a doctor, midwife, or qualified nurse. Studies have shown that poor perinatal outcomes can be linked to poor interprofessional collaboration and that when effective interprofessional collaboration is in place, better health outcomes are realized (Freeth, Ayida, Berridge, Mackintosh, Norris, Sadler, & Strachan 2009; Watkins, Nagle, Kent, & Hutchinson 2017). Therefore, a Readiness to Collaborate Scale (RCS) has been developed and validated with a group of low-risk obstetrical providers to test their readiness to collaborate together in an interprofessional team. In Phase I, content validation was performed with a group of low-risk obstetrical providers (n = 9). In Phase II, construct validation included a larger group of low-risk obstetrical providers (n = 140). Using a Principal Component Analysis, four factors were identified: Readiness for Interprofessional Collaboration, Communication, Trust and, Reluctance to Collaborate. Finally, the five questions posed by Borrill et al. (2001), to determine high and low functioning teams, were used for criterion validation. A t-Test to determine significant difference was completed and p values indicated there was a difference between scores of those who were high functioning versus those who were low functioning, demonstrating that the Readiness to Collaborate Scale (RCS) can identify those who are ready to participate in an ICHT, and those who are not.
Although IT industry is flourishing, student enrolment in Computer Science and related Engineering post-secondary degree programs is low. The causes and issues surrounding this trend are diverse, inter-related, and vastly complex; a consensus may never be reached regarding the nature of these issues affected by both global and local factors. Is a consensus regarding underlying causes and best practices required to create and sustain an infrastructure for effective outreach? Perhaps not. In this article, we discuss five key supportive mechanisms that are critical to sustained and integrated outreach initiatives at the grassroots level. We discuss these mechanisms using the example of SPARCS (Solving Problems with Algorithms, Robots, and Computers), an initiative at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. We further consider the tradeoffs associated with a vertical/centralized infrastructure versus a horizontal/distributed infrastructure.
DOI : 10.1109/mgdete.2007.4760371 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Computer science, Educational institutions, Educational technology, Communications technology, Computer science education, Mathematics, Computer industry, Best practices, North America, Educational programs, computer science education, educational institutions, engineering education, University of Victoria, integrated outreach activities, sustainable activities, IT industry, British Columbia, Canada