The early water damage is the main one of types in various phenomena of the early damage of highway asphalt concrete pavement This article discusses the mechanism and the causes of water damages emerged in the asphalt concrete pavement, analyzes the factors affecting the stability and control of water, and then put forward treatment of the technical measures to avoid early damage of asphalt concrete pavement
DOI : 10.1109/ICETCE.2011.5775886 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Asphalt, Concrete, Petroleum, Pipelines, Additives, Educational institutions, Civil engineering, asphalt, concrete, road building, roads, water damage, highway asphalt concrete pavement study, water stability, water control
ISBN: 978-1-4577-0290-7 Sayfa: 3776-3778 Konferans Tarihi: 22-24 April 2011 Konferans Yeri: Lushan, China
The concrete structure is the most widely used engineering structure It is very important to have the durability detection and evaluation of the concrete structure This article describes the conditions of the durability research of concrete structure in home and abroad, the factors affecting the durability of concrete structure and some measures to improve the durability of concrete structure and puts forward to some methods to improve the durability of concrete structure on this basis to be referred
Many concrete bridges have different degrees of durability problem for the effects of loads and bad environment For the goals of reducing or avoiding the serious consequences from deteriorating of durability, a evaluation method for bridge's durability is need This method need to find out the durability situation of concrete bridges timely and will not cost much to monitor the bridges It analyzes the prediction and assessment of durability of concrete bridges in summary, on this basis it points out the current prediction and assessment of durability of concretes bridge limitations, and proposes countermeasure solving the limitations Namely the factors that effecting the durability of concrete bridge are studied and summarized, and then a three-layer evaluation model for durability of concrete bridge is built base on the fuzzy evaluation theory
DOI : 10.1109/ICETCE.2011.5774250 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Concrete, Bridges, Presses, Petroleum, Civil engineering, Pipelines, bridges (structures), concrete, durability, fuzzy set theory, durability, concrete bridges, bad environment, fuzzy evaluation theory
ISBN: 978-1-4577-0290-7 Sayfa: 2645-2648 Konferans Tarihi: 22-24 April 2011 Konferans Yeri: Lushan, China
Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ and energy supplier. Its physiological effect on the regulation of the energy balance is considered an important factor underlying the evolution of mammals. To test whether the genes controlling lipid metabolism have undergone adaptive molecular change in the evolution of mammals, in this study, we used the orthologous gene sequences of 12 important lipid metabolism proteins (leptin, OB-RL, RXRA, RXRB, RXRG, PPARA, PPARB/D, PPARG, PNLIP, ADIPOQ, LPL and UCP1) from NCBI’s databases. We found evidence that 4 of the corresponding genes (leptin, ADIPOQ, PNLIP and PPARA) have undergone positive selection in their evolutionary history and that most adaptive changes occurred during the evolution of the super-clades Laurasiatheria (placentals) and suborders within Euarchontoglires (primates and rodents). Comparisons across sets of genes showed that in a third of cases, bursts of positive selection, more than would be expected by chance, occurred on corresponding branches. We propose that the positive selection drives adaptive changes in some lipid metabolism genes in or within Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires clades. Along with evidence from earlier studies, our results show that co-evolution among interacting lipid metabolism proteins has taken place.
At present the forepoling bolts of soil-nailed is widely used A discrete two-dimensional (2-D) finite element model is developed The contact behaviors between nails or bolts and soil are simulated by friction contact The displacement of unstable slope and soil pressure on the forepling bolts are calculated by the method Then soil-arching effect is inducted to discuss the working of principle of the forepling bolts used in soil nailing retaining
DOI : 10.1109/ICETCE.2011.5776027 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Fasteners, Soil, Petroleum, Presses, Pipelines, Buildings, Finite element methods, fasteners, finite element analysis, friction, mechanical contact, nailing, structural engineering, supports, combined support structure mechanism, soil-nailed bolts, vertical forepoling bolts, discrete two-dimensional finite element model, contact behaviors, friction contact, forepling bolts
ISBN: 978-1-4577-0290-7 Sayfa: 5571-5574 Konferans Tarihi: 22-24 April 2011 Konferans Yeri: Lushan, China
The short-pulse TDMA signal is an excellent solution to the near-far problem in the pseudolite augmentation systems, and the pulse duty cycle is an important element in the solution. This paper aims at designing the duty cycle of the pseudolite pulse signals with a theoretical method. At first, the scope of the duty cycle is derived theoretically with the object of ensuring the reception of both the pseudolite signals and the satellite signals, and the expression for the theoretical upper limit is given. Then based on the proposed expression, the duty cycles of Galileo pseudolite pulse signals are designed. The theoretical upper limit can guide the design of the short-pulse TDMA pseudolite signals.
Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is a complex astronautic project of great size. There are several steps in the construction process including system design, equipment development and system test procedure. The system design output such as system interface, operation flow and key performance will be validated with simulation experiment in the system design procedure. The real system interface implementation and key performance will be tested in the equipment development and system test procedure. A distributed simulation testbed is provided for the simulation experiment and system test. The simulation testbed structure, key technology, system implementation and applications are described in the paper.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-662-46638-4_41 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Global navigation satellite system, Distributed simulation testbed, Simulation experiment, System test
ISBN: 978-3-662-46638-4 Sayfa: 455-465
Amur grayling, Thymallus grubii, is an important economic cold freshwater fish originally found in the Amur basin. Currently, suffering from loss of habitat and shrinking population size, T. grubii is restricted to the mountain river branches of the Amur basin. In order to assess the genetic diversity, population genetic structure and infer the evolutionary history within the species, we analysised the whole mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) of 95 individuals from 10 rivers in China, as well as 12 individuals from Ingoda/Onon and Bureya River throughout its distribution area. A total of 64 variable sites were observed and 45 haplotypes were identified excluding sites with gaps/missing data. Phylogenetic analysis was able to confidently predict two subclade topologies well supported by maximum-parsimony and Bayesian methods. However, basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimated. Haplotypes from the mitochondrial clades displayed local homogeneity, implying a strong population structure within T. grubii. Analysis of molecular variance detected significant differences among the different geographical rivers, suggesting that T. grubii in each river should be managed and conserved separately.
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2011.11500 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Amur Grayling, Population Genetic Structure, Phylogeography, Mitochondrial DNA Control Region
Cilt: 25 Sayı: 7 Sayfa: 935 - 944
Acne is the eighth most common disease worldwide. Disease burden of acne such as anxiety, reduced self-esteem, and facial scarring lowers the life quality of acne patients. Isotretinoin is the most potent treatment for moderate-severe acne. However, the adverse events of isotretinoin especially teratogenicity limit its use. This study aims at investigating the therapeutical mechanisms of isotretinoin using bioinformatics analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were filtered from microarray datasets GSE10432, GSE10433, and GSE11792. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were performed. Protein–protein interaction (PPI) network and module analyses were also conducted based on DEGs. Using isotretinoin for 1 week, LCN2, PTGES, and GDF15 were upregulated and might mediate sebocytes apoptosis and thus decreased sebum production; CCL2 originated from activated TNF signaling pathway and S100A7 could be related with “acne-flare”. While treating with isotretinoin for 8 weeks, key genes were downregulated, including HMGCS1, HMGCR, FDFT1, MVD, IDI1, and FDPS, which may be associated with decreased sebum synthesis; HMGCS1, HMGCR, and FDFT1 also probably associated with apoptosis of sebocytes. There were only two common genes including ACSBG1 and BCAT2 which worked in both 1 week and 8 weeks and could associate with decreased sebum synthesis and apoptosis of sebocytes, respectively. These results indicate potential therapeutics and side effect mechanisms of isotretinoin in the acne treatment and provide a research direction to further investigate the therapeutic mechanism of isotretinoin and thus develop retinoid-like compounds with similar curative effect and without teratogenicity.
The Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus is a critically endangered species, listed in Appendix II of CITES. Its populations and habitat in China have undergone significant changes in recent years. Understanding the genetic variability and phylogeography of this species is very important for successful conservation. In this study, samples were taken from 11 wild ponds and two captive populations in China. We sequenced mitochondrial CYTB, partial ND6, and partial tRNA-Glu and genotyped 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses of these data showed low genetic variability, no strong isolation caused by distance, and a lack of a phylogeographic structure in this species. Based on our results, the basal divergence between two clades of S. crocodilurus in China may have been caused by the formation of the Pearl River system. We found a population expansion in one of these clades. Microsatellite analysis indicated the presence of three clusters, separated by significant genetic differences. We found that most individuals in the two captive populations were from the Luokeng (Guangdong) and Guangxi wild source populations, respectively.
The BeiDou system satellites may be unhealthy due to many reasons, affecting system performance in different ways. Therefore, it is important to analyze the causes and characteristics of the satellites’ unhealthy states. In this study, these states are classified into five types based on the broadcast ephemeris. Three criteria are presented, based on which a general classification method is proposed. Data from July 2017 to June 2018 are analyzed to validate the method, from which we know that the average unhealthy duration due to satellite maneuvers is much longer than the duration of unhealthy states related to satellite orbit or clock anomalies, and the other unhealthy states may be caused by inbound or outbound satellites. Statistics show that most of the time, the number of unhealthy satellites is no more than two and the average positioning accuracy in the service area will decrease by no more than 0.75 and 1.2 meters when one or two BDS satellites are unhealthy, respectively.
Objective Sturgeons are considered living fossils, and have a very high conservation and economic value. Studies on the molecular mechanism of sturgeon gonadal development and sex differentiation would not only aid in understanding vertebrate sex determination but also benefit sturgeon aquaculture. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been shown to function in germline or gonadal development. In this study, we performed small RNA deep sequencing and microarray hybridization to identify potential sturgeon piRNAs. Methods Male and female sturgeon gonads were collected and used for small RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq platform with the validation of piRNA expression by microarray chip. The program Bowtie and k-mer scheme were performed to filter small RNA reads and discover potential sturgeon piRNAs. A known piRNA database, the coding sequence (CDS), 5′ and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) database of the A. Schrenckii transcriptome, Gene Ontology (GO) database and KEGG pathway database were searched subsequently to analyze the potential bio-function of sturgeon piRNAs. Results A total of 875,679 putative sturgeon piRNAs were obtained, including 93 homologous to known piRNAs and hundreds showing sex-specific and sex-biased expression. Further analysis showed that they are predominant in both the ovaries and testes and those with a sex-specific expression pattern are nearly equally distribution between sexes. This may imply a relevant role in sturgeon gonadal development. KEGG pathway and GO annotation analyses indicated that they may be related to sturgeon reproductive processes. Conclusion Our study provides the first insights into the gonadal piRNAs in a sturgeon species and should serve as a useful resource for further elucidation of the gene regulation involved in the sex differentiation of vertebrates. These results should also facilitate the technological development of early sex identification in sturgeon aquaculture.
DOI : 10.7717/peerj.6709 Anahtar Kelimeler :
piRNA, Sturgeon, Gonadal development
ISSN: 2167-8359 Cilt: 7 Sayfa: e6709
Sturgeons are considered as living fossils and have very high evolutionary, economical and conservation values. The multiploidy of sturgeon that has been caused by chromosome duplication may lead to the emergence of new microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the ploidy and physiological processes. In the present study, we performed the first sturgeon miRNAs analysis by RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing combined with expression assay of microarray and real-time PCR, and aimed to discover the sturgeon-specific miRNAs, confirm the expressed pattern of miRNAs and illustrate the potential role of miRNAs-targets on sturgeon biological processes. A total of 103 miRNAs were identified, including 58 miRNAs with strongly detected signals (signal >500 and P≤0.01), which were detected by microarray. Real-time PCR assay supported the expression pattern obtained by microarray. Moreover, co-expression of 21 miRNAs in all five tissues and tissue-specific expression of 16 miRNAs implied the crucial and particular function of them in sturgeon physiological processes. Target gene prediction, especially the enriched functional gene groups (369 GO terms) and pathways (37 KEGG) regulated by 58 miRNAs (P<0.05), illustrated the interaction of miRNAs and putative mRNAs, and also the potential mechanism involved in these biological processes. Our new findings of sturgeon miRNAs expand the public database of transcriptome information for this species, contribute to our understanding of sturgeon biology, and also provide invaluable data that may be applied in sturgeon breeding.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0115251 Anahtar Kelimeler :
MicroRNAs, Sturgeons, RNA sequencing, Small nucleolar RNAs, Microarrays, Transcriptome analysis, Sequence databases, Messenger RNA
As the Compass satellite system is under construction, various applications are emerging. Multipath mitigation is still a critical problem that must be resolved, especially short delay multipath. Research on multipath mitigation is reported and a multipath limiting antenna array including the algorithm is discussed. The carrier phase data of the receiver are subjected to forward–backward spatial smoothing to decorrelate the signals. The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm estimates the direction of the satellite signal and the direction of the multipath. Based on the direction of arrival (DOA), the beamforming maximizes the gain in the satellite signal direction and places nulls in the multipath directions. Compared to other beamforming algorithms, the method presented places nulls in the multipath directions and obtains high gain in the satellite direction. At the same time, the phase is not changed during the vector weighting method. The multipath limiting antenna array discussed resolves the problem that the short delay multipath cannot be reduced in signal processing multipath mitigation technology and that in the process, the phase in the direction of the satellite signal is not changed. An extra carrier phase measurement error of the receiver is not introduced, and a phase correction after beamforming is not necessary. The multipath limiting antenna array and the algorithm can provide support for the high-performance satellite navigation system.
DOI : 10.1007/s10291-014-0400-x Anahtar Kelimeler :
Multipath mitigation, Coherent signals, Direction of arrival estimation, Beamforming, Phase center
ISSN: 1521-1886 Cilt: 19 Sayı: 4 Sayfa: 505-510
Increasing evidence has manifested that the gut bacterial microbiota of shrimps is closely related to the environmental factors, host developmental stage and health status like that of humans and animals does. These studies have provided an important guidance for improving shrimp culture benefits. In practice, aside from bacteria, eukaryotic microorganisms dominated by fungal microbiota (mycobiota), also play a key role in host growth, metabolism and homeostasis. However, little so far is known about the mycobiota in the digestive tract of shrimp. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 1 region to characterize the hepatopancreas and intestinal mycobiota of Pacific white shrimp and their connections with disease incidence and seasonal variation. The results showed that the hepatopancreas and intestinal mycobiota of Litopenaeus vannamei are dominated by the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and the genera Alternaria, Tuber, Hortaea, Sarocladium, and Stagonospora. The fungal microbiota significantly varies under the influence of disease and seasonal variation. Sick shrimps had a higher level of potential pathogenic fungus, Candida in the intestine. Healthy shrimps had a higher abundance of the genera Didymella and Filobasidium in the gut, and Pyrenochaetopsis in the hepatopancreas. Of note, most of the fungi carried by Pacific white shrimps were pathogens to humans. This study has revealed the intestinal and hepatopancreas mycobiota of L. vannamei and the effects of diseases and seasonal variation to the mycobiota. Our study provides important guidance for Pacific white shrimp farming and sheds further insight on the fungal microbiota.
DOI : 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00889 Anahtar Kelimeler :
intestine, ITS amplicon, hepatopancreas, Litopenaeus vannamei, mycobiota
ISSN: 1664-302X Cilt: 10
ZSVM1, ZSVM2, and ZSVM6 are three traditional space vector modulation (SVM) strategies for three-phase Z-source inverter The shoot-through times of ZSVM1, ZSVM2, and ZSVM6 are divided into two equal parts, four equal parts, and six equal parts, respectively Although these control strategies are easy to be implemented in program, their inductor current ripples are not optimized, causing large current ripple This paper proposes new SVM strategies, named ZSVMD6 and ZSVMD1, for reducing inductor current ripples of Z-source inverter The principle of volt-second balance is used in the proposed strategies to divide shoot-through times in real time So every divided shoot-through time is not equal, and changing in real time The divided shoot-through time can ensure that the sum of the inductor charging current ripple and discharging current ripple is zero at each time, therefore reducing the inductor current ripples The derivation details of the proposed strategies are given The inductor current ripples of the proposed strategies and traditional ones are compared and analyzed Simulation and experiment results show that the inductor current ripples of the proposed strategies are much lower than that of the traditional ones, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed strategies
DOI : 10.1109/TPEL.2017.2692821 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Inductors, Inverters, Support vector machines, Switches, Modulation, Real-time systems, Capacitors, inductors, machine control, power system control, PWM invertors, switching convertors, vectors, space vector modulation strategies, inductor current ripple reduction, Z-source inverter, ZSVM, three-phase Z-source inverter, shoot-through times, volt-second balance, discharging current ripple, divided shoot-through, SVM strategies
ISSN: 0885-8993 Cilt: 33 Sayı: 3 Sayfa: 2643-2654