The wealthy countries have already secured 60% of the total coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine supplies for their citizens. Some of these countries have pre-ordered vaccine doses sufficient enough to vaccinate their population multiple times. India has recently initiated a diplomatic mission named “Vaccine Maitri” to provide COVID-19 vaccine doses to needy low-income countries. The ability of the country to manufacture cost-effective vaccines along with the ability to export large vaccine consignments worldwide will help to meet the global COVID-19 vaccine requirements. Furthermore, global vaccination coverage can only be achieved by ensuring equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines.
Presently, monkeypox has emerged in multiple countries with many confirmed cases, posing a global public health threat. A link has been found between air travel and the international spread of infectious diseases including the previous spread of monkeypox. This article highlights the spread of COVID-19 through air travel, and then monkeypox spread from one country to another. Scientists are trying to establish the air travel and monkeypox spread. Any travel link from an endemic country has not been proven yet to describe the rising number of current monkeypox cases in non-endemic countries. Due to the quantification method, the direct link of the diseases with air travel might be difficult to establish. However, we have also developed different statistical models of the confirmed cases and the number of air travelers per year (noted in countries where monkeypox has spread). As there is no direct link, these models might show a probability of an indirect association of air travel. However, more strong evidence is needed in this direction. Although, the sudden appearance of monkeypox cases in multiple countries in a few days demands comprehensive epidemiological investigations, genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates to prove the travel link from an endemic country. At the same time, it is also necessary to know the real cause while also exploring any direct and/or indirect travel links between different countries. Similarly, the possibility of any zoonotic event should find out to understand the more about natural animal reservoir(s) for the monkeypox virus, which is unknown until now. However, this report will help researchers for conducting further explorative research and investigations for understanding transmission patterns and guide policymakers to make proactive policies to limit the spread of monkeypox.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tmaid.2022.102398 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Monkeypox virus, International travel, SARS-CoV-2 virus, Country-wise transmission
ISSN: 1477-8939 Sayfa: 102398
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is one the important pathogen affecting commercial poultry sector globally by causing mortality, production losses, immunosuppression, aggravating co-infections and vaccination failures. Here, we describe the effects of CAV load on hematological, histopathological and immunocytochemical alterations in 1-day old infected chicks. The effects of CAV on cytokine expression profiles and generation of virus specific antibody titer were also studied and compared with viral clearance in various tissues. The results clearly confirmed that peak viral load was achieved mainly in lymphoid tissues between 10 and 20 days post infection (dpi), being highest in the blood (log1010.63 ±0.87/ml) and thymus (log1010.29 ±0.94/g) followed by spleen, liver, bone marrow and bursa. The histopathology and immunoflowcytometric analysis indicated specific degeneration of T lymphoid cells in the thymus, spleen and blood at 15 dpi. While the transcript levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12 decreased at all dpi, interferon (IFN)-γ increased (3–15 fold) during early stages of infection and the appearance of virus specific antibodies were found to be strongly associated with virus clearance in all the tissues. Our findings support the immunosuppressive nature of CAV and provide the relation between the virus load in the various body tissues and the immunopathological changes during clinical CAV infections.
Background The aim of this study was to summarize the antiviral activities of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Methods Available publications were systematically explored on some databases and gray literature was examined. Publications were discussed narratively. Results Remdesivir inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, reduces viral load, and exerts protective effects in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals. Remdesivir also reduces the pathological process, alleviates mild symptoms, and improves pulmonary lesions in SARS-CoV-2-infecetd animals. Remdesivir has been used as a compassionate drug for treating COVID-19 patients. Conclusion Although remdesivir has shown potent antiviral activities, more efficacy assessments are urgently warranted in clinical trials.
No specific drugs have been approved for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to date as the development of antivirals usually requires time. Therefore, assessment and use of currently available antiviral drugs is critical for a timely response to the current pandemic. Here, we have reviewed anti-SARS-CoV-2 potencies of available antiviral drug groups such as fusion inhibitors, protease inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, and M2 ion-channel protein blockers. Although clinical trials to assess the efficacy of these antivirals are ongoing, this review highlights important information including docking and modeling analyses, in vitro studies, as well as results from clinical uses of these antivirals against COVID-19 pandemic.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has already affected millions worldwide. The emergence of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants may pose a significant threat to our efforts in controlling the pandemic. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on the efficacy of available vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics is currently being investigated. SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated to be originated from animals due to cross-species jumping and raises zoonotic concerns due to the potential for reintroduction into the human populations via interspecies transmission between humans and animals. Natural SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in domestic animals (dog, cat, and ferret), captive animals (tiger, lion, snow leopard, puma, otter, and gorilla), and wild and farmed minks. Vaccination of domestic animals can prevent the possible introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into the feral population and subsequent transmission to wildlife. Although the need to vaccinate susceptible animal species, such as cats, minks, and great apes, might seem irrational from a public health standpoint, the successful elimination of SARS-CoV-2 will only be possible by controlling the transmission in all susceptible animal species. This is necessary to prevent the re-emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the future.
The SARS‐CoV‐2 virus has shown increased ability to mutate over the past two years, especially in the regions of the spike protein and receptor binding sites. Omicron (B.1.1.529) is the fifth variant of concern (VOC) after the emergence of the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta VOCs of SARS‐CoV‐2. This new variant has now circulated in 128 countries and according to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID), these 128 countries have shared 650,657 Omicron genome sequences as of 26 January, 2022. In this article, we highlight the real challenges of Omicron and its different lineages.
Hybrid immunity has been accepted as the most robust immunity to fight against SARS-CoV-2. The hybrid immunity against the virus is produced in individuals who have contracted the disease and received the COVID-19 vaccine. This happens due to the cumulative effect of natural and acquired (vaccine) immunity, which provides higher antibody responses compared to natural and vaccine-produced immunity alone. Scientists have noted that it provides about 25 to 100 times higher antibody responses than natural and vaccine-produced immunity alone. Here, we have tried to illustrate the molecular basis of hybrid immunity against various SARS-CoV-2 variants. We have described hybrid immunity under different headings, which are as follows: an overview of hybrid immunity; a comparison between herd immunity and hybrid immunity against SARS-CoV-2; hybrid immunity in different countries; hybrid immunity and different SARS-CoV-2 variants; the molecular basis of hybrid immunity; and hybrid immunity in Indian scenario. India’s large population has recovered from SARS-CoV-2, and data shows that over 1000 million of the population received at least one dose of the vaccine. Besides, many infected individuals who have recovered also received at least one dose of the vaccine leading to hybrid immunity with a less severe third wave compared to the first and second waves. Based on the available data, we hypothesize that people's hybrid immunity could be a major cause of the less severe third wave.
DOI : 10.1016/j.intimp.2022.108766 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Hybrid immunity, SARS-CoV-2, Infection, COVID-19 vaccine, Third wave in India
ISSN: 1567-5769 Cilt: 108 Sayfa: 108766
Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease.
Rotavirus D (RV-D) is gaining importance as a cause of gastroenteritis and runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry. To date, information is scarce on the molecular analysis of RV-D isolates worldwide. In this study, the VP7 gene, a major constituent of outer capsid structural protein, from a RV-D isolate (UKD48) obtained from Uttarakhand state was analyzed. Phylogenetically, the RV-D isolate was found to be closely related to a South Korean strain, and the nucleotide percent identity varied from 80.4–84.2% with other RV-D strains available globally. Furthermore, domain investigation within 21 aligned amino acid sequences of the VP7 gene affirmed that this gene has several domains: a conserved glycosylation site (N–I–T) having an important role in protein folding; a N-terminal signal peptide (“ITG”) for endoplasmic reticulum retention; and two hydrophobic sites for elucidating transmembrane portions, antigenic structures, and so forth. The findings suggest that the VP7 gene of the Indian RV-D isolate is genetically distinct from those of other avian RV-Ds. Although biological evidence is still needed to prove the functional characteristics of these domains in outer capsid structural proteins, the present study adds new knowledge and derives the need for further investigation.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus-2 (SARSCoV-2), pandemic has caused huge panic, havoc and global threats worldwide. The origin of this virus has been linked to animals, intermediate host is still to be identified, and studies are being carried out that how it got transmitted to humans and acquired rapid human-to-human transmission. Within a short time period of only 05 months, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 213 countries, and till 28th May, 2020, nearly 5.8 million confirmed cases have been reported while taking lives of 0.36 million persons. Seeing the current situation of rapid increase in COVID-19 cases daily in many countries, this seems to be the deadliest pandemic after the 1918 Spanish Flu. There is currently no specific effective treatment for COVID-19 and also in absence of vaccine the radical cure of the disease is far away. Researchers are pacing high to design and develop effective vaccines, drugs and therapeutics to counter COVID-19, however such efforts, clinical trials, necessary approvals and then to reach the level of bulk production of many millions of doses may still take much time. Prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreaks requires an evidence-based, multi-factorial and effective mitigation strategy to be adopted. The current review discusses on the research advancements, challenges and opportunities in COVID 19 management with a focus on its transmission, prevention, treatment and control.
Introduction: Adolescents' tobacco usage is a serious health concern. Advertisements in mass media are influential for initiating tobacco use in youth among India. Advertisements and promotional activities for tobacco lead to initiation and progression of tobacco among Indian adolescents which have been reviewed for tobacco prevention and cessation. Aim: The aim of the study is to summarize the effect of glorified advertising among teenagers. Methods: Electronic database was searched to identify suitable literature using Medline, PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar. The search was focused on studies examining the influence of advertisements and promotional activities of tobacco use among adolescents. Results: The search resulted in 31 articles, of which 10 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this systemic review. These studies were conducted in India from 2005 to 2016. Glorified marketing and advertising of tobacco play a significant role in tobacco initiation and experimentation of tobacco intake among adolescents. Conclusions: Glorified advertising traps the vulnerable adolescents for tobacco usage. They develop normalcy toward tobacco usage through attractive advertising. Measures such as banning tobacco usage in movies and television should be strictly implemented as youth get easily trapped in the influence of movies and television. Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products Act should be strictly implemented. All the loopholes in the legislation should be evenly covered.
DOI : 10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_166_17 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Advertising, India, teenagers, tobacco
Cilt: 16 Sayı: 3 Sayfa: 188 - 192
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belongs to genus Avulavirus and family Paramyxoviridae. There are thirteen serotypes named APMV-I (Avian Paramyxovirus-I) to APMV-13 of which NDV has been designated as APMV-1. The disease has been reported worldwide affecting both domestic and wild avian species. Morbidity and mortality rates up to 100% have been reported in cases of unvaccinated flocks. Stringent vaccination schedule is practiced in endemic/disease prone areas in order to prevent the disease. Despite this, NDV outbreaks have been reported even in cases of vaccinated populations. In this study we describe detailed pathological and molecular investigation that were undertaken in an organized poultry farm from Bareilly region, Uttar Pradesh, India, involving layer flocks which succumbed to ND outbreak in spite of following strict vaccination protocol. The mortality rate ranged from 76.80 to 84.41% in different flocks with an average mortality of 79.50%. Necropsied birds had gross lesions suggestive of viscerotropic ND including petechial hemorrhages on the proventricular tips, intestinal lumen with necrotic areas covered with hemorrhages, hemorrhagic cecal tonsils, para-tracheal edema and mottling of spleen. The characteristic histopathological lesions were mainly seen in the blood vessels and lymphoid tissues. Vascular changes characterized by congestion, edema, and hemorrhage were found in majority of the organs. Lymphocytolysis in spleen and cecal tonsils was evident. Immunohistochemical studies revealed positive signals mostly in macrophage and lymphocytes. PCR assay was done to confirm the NDV genome, which revealed an amplicon size of 356 bp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the resemblance of the present isolate (ADS01) with class II genotype NDV XIIIA. The isolate belonged to velogenic NDV as the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) and Mean Death Time (MDT) for the present isolate were 10-8 and 41 h, respectively. Thus this study clearly demonstrates that in spite of strict vaccination regime and biosecurity procedures, ND continues to be rampant. Hence it is important to effectively administer the present vaccine in addition to strains matching to the field isolates to provide longer and optimal protection against spreading of virus by means of reducing the extent of viral shedding.
Introduction: E-cigarettes (EC) are devices that heat liquid into an aerosol that user inhales. Youth are using EC at increasing and alarming rates. The tobacco industry aggressively markets EC to youth, glamorizing EC use in advertisements, and offering EC in candy flavors such as bubble gum and gummy bears. The liquid usually in EC has nicotine and other additives which is addictive. Aim: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. Materials and Methods: A literature review was performed; PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane Library, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched from 1970 to December 2017 to identify appropriate studies. Results: Out of the total 817 titles appeared, 17 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. Two articles which were hand searched and one article which was through E-mail was also included in this review. EC have a direct impact on smokers and efficiency in quitting smoking was assessed very low. Majority of the study found that EC could increase the risk of smokers developing nicotine dependence and thus evidence on smoking reduction was found very low. Conclusions: There are relatively a few studies evaluating the role of EC in smoking cessation. EC products are marketed in a wide variety of channels that have broad reach among youth and young adults, including magazines, television, radio, and the Internet. More randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify the role of EC in smoking cessation.
Candida albicans is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen representing an important source of invasive disease in humans and generating high healthcare costs worldwide. This fungus is frequently found in different anatomical sites of healthy persons and could induce systemic and superficial infections under optimal environmental conditions. Invasive candidiasis (IC) is an important nosocomial infection with high morbidity and mortality rates in hospitalized children. It represents a major source of prolonged infections in intensive care unit (ICU), particularly in immunosuppressed or elderly patients. Clinical diagnosis of candidiasis could be difficult because of the lack of specific symptoms and clinical signs. Although C. albicans is the most frequently isolated Candida species in IC, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species are also commonly detected. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), electrophoretic karyotyping (EK), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are known as an efficient technique used for molecular typing of Candida species. The efficacy of antifungal treatment against candidiasis has been evaluated and discussed in the context of large epidemiological studies. The present review highlights the etiology, epidemiology, molecular typing, commensalism and virulence factors, along with the appropriate prevention and control strategies regarding this widespread pathogen.