The current global pandemic of COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This typically causes severe respiratory illness, however, as cases have multiplied across the globe, protean manifestations involving multiple organ systems have been described. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman with meningoencephalitis associated with COVID-19 disease who presented with altered mental status and rhythmic limb movements. Although rare, meningoencephalitis should be considered as a possible manifestation of COVID-19 disease.
Effective therapy for advanced cancer often requires treatment of both primary tumors and systemic disease that may not be apparent at initial diagnosis. Numerous studies have shown that stimulation of the host immune system can result in the generation of anti-tumor immune responses capable of controlling metastatic tumor growth. Thus, there is interest in the development of combination therapies that both control primary tumor growth and stimulate anti-tumor immunity for control of metastatic disease and subsequent tumor growth. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an FDA-approved anticancer modality that has been shown to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Augmentation of anti-tumor immunity by PDT is regimen dependent, and PDT regimens that enhance anti-tumor immunity have been defined. Unfortunately, these regimens have limited ability to control primary tumor growth. Therefore, a two-step combination therapy was devised in which a tumor-controlling PDT regimen was combined with an immune-enhancing PDT regimen. To determine whether the two-step combination therapy enhanced anti-tumor immunity, resistance to subsequent tumor challenge and T cell activation and function was measured. The ability to control distant disease was also determined. The results showed that the novel combination therapy stimulated anti-tumor immunity while retaining the ability to inhibit primary tumor growth of both murine colon (Colon26-HA) and mammary (4T1) carcinomas. The combination therapy resulted in enhanced tumor-specific T cell activation and controlled metastatic tumor growth. These results suggest that PDT may be an effective adjuvant for therapies that fail to stimulate the host anti-tumor immune response.