A new species of the genus Mesobuthus Vachon, 1950 is described, based on specimens collected in the northern piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang. It is characterized by a slender chela, general coloration yellow to pale brownish-yellow, elongate aculeus and 2–4 markedly large and moderately extroversive lobed granules of the ventrolateral carinae of metasoma segment V. With the description of this new species, the number of known Chinese species of Mesobuthus is raised to five.
DOI : 10.3897/zookeys.37.301
Cilt: 37 Sayfa: 1 - 12
Anaesthesia exposure causes changes in the developing brain and affects behaviour and memory. This study examined the beneficial effect of pachypodol against isoflurane (ISF)‐induced neuronal injury. Seven‐day‐old rats were treated with 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg intravenous pachypodol 30 min before exposure to ISF (0.75%) for 6 h. Oxidative stress and other biochemical parameters were assessed in the brain tissue and serum using enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‐end labelling (TUNEL) assay was performed to assess neuronal cell apoptosis in several regions of the hippocampus. Cognitive function and neurological scores were determined in the pachypodol‐treated neuron‐injured rats. Cytokine levels and oxidative stress were reduced in the pachypodol‐treated group compared with the ISF group. In addition, cognitive deterioration was reversed in pachypodol‐treated compared with ISF‐treated rats. Thus, treatment with pachypodol reduced neuronal apoptosis in neuron‐injured rats. Moreover, pachypodol ameliorated changes to the JNK/ERK/Akt pathway in brain‐injured rats. In conclusion, pachypodol treatment prevents neuronal apoptosis in ISF‐treated rats by regulating the JNK/ERK pathway.
The kidney is a key organ in the human body that excretes toxins and sustains the water–electrolyte balance. During embryonic development and disease progression, the kidney undergoes enormous changes in macrostructure, accompanied by a variety of microstructural histological changes, such as glomerular formation and sclerosis, tubule elongation and atrophy, interstitial establishment, and fibrosis progression. All of these rely on the frequent occurrence of cell death and growth. Notably, to overcome disease, some cells regenerate through self-repair or progenitor cell differentiation. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying kidney development and regeneration have not been elucidated. Recently, Wnt signaling has been noted to play an important role. Although it is a well-known developmental signal, the role of Wnt signaling in kidney development and regeneration is not well recognized. In this review, we review the role of Wnt signaling in kidney embryonic development, tissue repair, cell division, and progenitor cell differentiation after injury. Moreover, we briefly highlight advances in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of Wnt signaling in mediating cellular senescence in kidney parenchymal and stem cells, an irreversible arrest of cell proliferation blocking tissue repair and regeneration. We also highlight the therapeutic targets of Wnt signaling in kidney diseases and provide important clues for clinical strategies.
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most important causes of the disability and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study examined the cardiac abnormalities in patients with SLE by echocardiography. Case-control studies were obtained by searching PubMed MEDLINE, Embase, and MD Consult. Systemic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the cardiac abnormalities based on the changes in the echocardiography in patients with SLE. Twenty-two studies including 1117 SLE patients and 901 healthy controls were enrolled into this study. We found that patients with SLE developed the pericardial effusion (odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) 30.52 (9.70–96.02); p < 0.00001) and the combined valvular alterations (OR (95 %CI) 11.08 (6.98–17.59); p < 0.00001). In addition, SLE patients also exhibited an increase in the left atrial diameter (LAD) (WMD—weighted mean difference (95 %CI) 0.18 (0.06–0.29); p = 0.002), the left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVDd) (WMD (95 %CI) 0.07 (0.02–0.12); p = 0.01), and the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (WMD (95 %CI) 5.69 (2.69–8.69); p = 0.0002). In contrast, the left ventricular systolic function (WMD (95 %CI) −1.22 (−1.69 to −0.75); p < 0.00001) and diastolic function including E/A ratio and E/E’ ratio (WMD (95 % CI) −0.13 (−0.24 to −0.01); p = 0.04; WMD (95 % CI) 1.71 (0.43 to 2.99); p = 0.009) were decreased in SLE patients. Patients with SLE are associated with significant alterations in cardiac structure and function as demonstrated by echocardiography. Data from this study suggest that echocardiographic assessment should be considered as a part of routine examinations for SLE patients clinically.
DOI : 10.1007/s10067-016-3373-z Anahtar Kelimeler :
Cardiac structure and function, Echocardiography, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Systemic review and meta-analysis
ISSN: 0770-3198 1434-9949 Sayı: 10 Cilt: 35 Sayfa: 2437-2448
This study reports the results of a re-analysis of the number of lateral eyes in extant buthids. Specimens studied were confined mostly to those from China and the adjacent areas. 353 specimens belonging to 20 species (subspecies) and 8 genera were rechecked and found to have 5 pairs of lateral eyes contrary to earlier published works which reported the presence of 3 pairs of lateral eyes only. Combined with reported examples collected through reference investigation including 63 species from 16 genera, our study here shows a total of 79 species from 21 genera of scorpions spanning Asia and Africa had 5 pairs of lateral eyes. Reasons for not observing the presence of the extra lateral eyes are discussed and new protocols for examining specimens including using UV light are proposed to aid lateral eye recognition. Besides, a majority of genera in Buthidae are suggested to be in “Five-eye” model and a re-examination of all previously published taxonomic studies of buthid species is highly recommended.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0055125 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Eyes, Scorpions, Taxonomy, Lens (anatomy), White light, Pigments, Evolutionary systematics, Photography
Abstract Background Emerging evidence has demonstrated that acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important risk factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) patients. The current study aimed to investigate the incidence rate, risk factors, long-term renal outcomes, and mortality in DKA patients with AKI. Methods A total of 179 patients diagnosed with DKA at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital from January 2012 to January 2018 were included in the analysis. AKI was diagnosed according to the 2012 KDIGO criteria. Risk factors, long-term renal outcomes, and mortality were analyzed by logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among 179 DKA patients, 98 patients (54.75%) were diagnosed as AKI. Aging; increased blood glucose, serum uric acid and white blood cells; decreased serum pH and albumin; coma; and preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD) were risk factors of AKI in patients with DKA. During follow-up, DKA patients with AKI showed more than a two-fold decline in eGFR within 1 year after discharge from the hospital when compared with non-AKI DKA patients. Furthermore, AKI was also an independent risk factor for poor long-term renal outcomes and mortality in DKA patients. Conclusions Multiple risk factors contribute to the development of AKI in DKA patients. AKI and advanced AKI stage are associated with rapid progressive CKD and long-term mortality in patients with DKA.
Biomimetic design of nanomaterials with enzyme‐like characteristics has emerged as a promising method for the generation of novel therapeutics. However, synthesis of nanomaterials while maintaining a high degree of control over both geometry and valency poses a prominent challenge. Herein, the authors introduce a nanomaterial‐based synthetic biology strategy for accurate and quantitative tailoring of high‐ordered nanostructures that uses a “bottom‐up” hierarchical incorporation of protein building blocks. The assembled nano‐oligomers possessed tunable protein motifs and multivalent binding domains, which facilitated prolonged blood circulation time, accumulation within tumor cells through direct targeting of cell receptors, and deep tumor tissue penetration via a transcytosis mechanism. Using these protein/protein nano‐oligomers as scaffolds, the authors created a new series of artificial nano‐scaled metalloenzymes (nanozymes) by the in situ incorporation of metal nanoclusters within the cavity of the protein nanocages. Nanozymes were capable of mimicking peroxidase‐like activity and generated cytotoxic free radicals. Compared to nanozyme alone, the systemic delivery of oligomeric nanozymes demonstrated significantly enhanced therapeutic and anti‐tumor benefits. This study shows a new insight into nanotechnology by taking advantage of synthetic biotechnology.