Privatization is proceeding slowly in many Eastern European countries. This is largely because the insiders, who currently have control but not property rights to the firms, oppose outsider privatization.
This review explores recent work directed towards more targeted treatment of cancer, whether through more specific anti-cancer agents or through methods of delivery. These areas include delivery by avoiding the reticuloendothelial system, utilizing the enhanced permeability and retention effect and tumor-specific targeting. Treatment opportunities using antibody-targeted therapies are summarized. The ability to treat cancer by targeting delivery through angiogenesis is also discussed and antiangiogenic drugs in clinical trials are presented. Delivery methods that specifically use nanoparticles are also highlighted, including both degradable and nondegradable polymers.
Data about non-dietary exposure to different chemical classes of pesticides are scarce, especially in France. Our objective was to assess residential pesticide exposure of non-occupationally exposed adults, and to compare it with occupational exposure of subjects working indoors. Twenty unexposed persons, five gardeners, seven florists and nine veterinary workers living in Paris area were recruited. Nineteen residences, two greenhouses, three florist shops and three veterinary departments were then sampled. Thirty-eight insecticides, herbicides and fungicides were measured in indoor air with an air sampler for 24 h, and on hands by wiping them with isopropanol-wetted swabs. After extraction, samples were analysed by gas and high-performance liquid chromatography. Seventeen different pesticides were detected at least once in indoor air and twenty-one on the hands. An average of 4.2 ± 1.7 different pesticides was detected per indoor air sample. The organochlorines lindane, α-endosulfan and α-HCH were the most frequently detected compounds, in 97%, 69% and 38% of the samples, respectively. The organophosphates dichlorvos and fenthion, the carbamate propoxur and the herbicides atrazine and alachlor were detected in more than 20% of the air samples. Indoor air concentrations were often low, but could reach 200–300 ng/m3 in residences for atrazine and propoxur. Propoxur levels significantly differed between the air of veterinary places and other places (Kruskal–Wallis test, p < 0.05) and dieldrin levels between residences and workplaces (p < 0.05). There was a greater number of pesticides on hands than in air, with an average of 6.3 ± 3.3 different pesticides detected per sample, the most frequently detected being malathion, lindane and trifluralin, in more than 60% of the subjects. Maximal levels (up to 1000–3000 ng/hands) were observed either in the general population or in workers, depending on the pesticide. However, no significant difference was observed between workers and general population handwipe pesticide levels. As expected, gardeners were exposed to pesticides sprayed in greenhouses. Florists and veterinary workers, whose pesticide exposure had not been described until now, were also indirectly exposed to pesticides used for former pest control operations. Overall, general population was exposed to more various pesticides and at levels sometimes higher than in occupational places. The most frequent pesticides in residences were not the same as in US studies but levels were similar. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in a greater number of residences from different parts of the country, in order to better assess pesticide exposure of the general population and its influencing factors.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.08.016 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Pesticides, Indoor air, Cutaneous exposure, Human exposure assessment, General population, Occupational exposure
Cilt: 366 Sayı: 1 Sayfa: 74-91 ISSN: 0048-9697
We present interesting results for two processes of main importance when studying skimming tau neutrinos. First, the accuracy of the approximation of continuous energy losses of the tau lepton in matter is discussed through a comparison with a full stochastic framework. And then, we question the validity of neglecting the ντ regeneration, through multiple ντ↔τ conversions, using different scenarios for the neutrino-nucleon cross-sections and the tau energy losses.
Urinary oestrone, œstradiol, œstriol, 17- oxosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, and protein-bound iodine-127 and plasma-11- hydroxycorticosteroids levels were studied in 115 women with breast cancer. They were divided into four groups (premenopausal or postmenopausal, stages 1/2 or 3/4). The œstrogen excretion in the premenopausal patients in stages 1/2 was significantly lower than in the controls. The postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer showed a significant elevation of the oestrone fraction. Total urinary 17-oxosteroids and dehydroepiandrosterone were below normal in the premenopausal patients, and this correlated fairly well with the low oestrogen values. It is suggested that a high oestrogen secretion might not be a necessary ætiological factor in human breast cancer. Serum-protein-bound-iodine-127 levels were significantly reduced only in the premenopausal patients in stages 3/4, but more than 50% of all the cases had protein-bound-iodine levels below the lower limit of normal.
CD45 est une tyrosine phosphatase fortement exprimée sur les lymphocytes. Dans un précédant travail, nous avons montré que le niveau d’expression de l’isoforme RC sur les lymphocytes T (LT) était associée à un risque accru de rejet aigu (RA). Nous rapportons ici l’analyse de l’expression de CD45RC dans une cohorte de transplantés rénaux successifs exposés à un traitement immunosuppresseur conventionnel.