NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are increasingly used in many engineering and medical applications, because they combine special functional properties, such as shape memory effect and pseudo-elasticity, with good mechanical strength and biocompatibility. However, the microstructural changes associated with these functional properties are not yet completely known. In this work a NiTi pseudo-elastic alloy was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction in order to assess micro-structural transformations under mechanical uniaxial deformation. The structure after complete shape recovery have been compared with initial state.
Biomass gasification is an effective way to produce syngas that must be conditioned to remove the main pollutants (tars) for its use in energy production systems. Catalytic steam reforming of tar and CH4 is thus necessary; Nickel catalysts are excellent candidates but still have deactivation problems related to carbon deposition and sulphur poisoning. Various studies demonstrated that Mayenite as binder for Nickel has free oxygen ions that protect the catalyst from coke formation and H2S poisoning. Similar studies are carried out only with tar representative compounds (e.g. toluene); here the catalyst was tested with real syngas from biomass gasification containing CH4, benzene and tars. Ni/Mayenite was synthesized with citrate sol-gel method, characterized (XRD, BET, SEM, XRF), tested for 50 h and again characterized in order to study its degradation. Heavier tars were 100% converted; lower tars were converted with high rate; CH4 showed a decrease in conversion after 2 h.
In this study, the authors retrospectively compared the clinical outcome of middle-aged active patients affected by a varus knee with medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis: the treatment was isolated high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for one group or HTO associated with a cartilage repair procedure, that was autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for one group (HTO + ACI) and microfracture (MFX) for the other group (HTO + MFX). The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical outcomes at long-term follow-up. The hypothesis was that a cartilage repair procedure may add some benefit to isolated axial correction.
DOI : 10.1016/j.knee.2013.11.013 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Arthritis, Knee, Varus, Osteotomy, Cartilage, Surgery
Cilt: 21 Sayı: 2 Sayfa: 445-450 ISSN: 0968-0160
In the present work two convective episodes in the Mediterranean are studied by means of nearly simultaneous Meteosat Visible-Infrared and SSM/I Passice Microwave data. The two datasets are carefully co-located and an estimate of the uncorrected errors is given in order to have a reliable pixel-by-pixel matching in the images, where possible. The aim of this work is to provide detailed observation of such cloud systems on a pure satellite basis.
Elemental zinc and copper–zinc alloys capped with a mixed-oxide layer of cuprite and zincite were exposed to SO2 vapour in a humid oxygen-free atmosphere. Elemental sulphur, zinc sulphite and some zinc hydroxide are the only products which are obtained in the anoxic sulphitation of metal zinc. The pseudo-binary system Cu2SO3Cu(1−x)ZnxSO3⋅2H2O is the result of the experiments on both thermally oxidised and naturally weathered α-brasses. The outcome of competition between the high-copper and the high-zinc species strongly depends on the mass action law: the greater the ZnO to Cu2O phases ratio, the higher the substitution rate of Cu(II) for Zn(II).
DOI : 10.1016/j.corsci.2014.08.003 Anahtar Kelimeler :
A. Brass, A. Zinc, B. SEM, B. XRD, C. Oxide coatings
Cilt: 88 Sayı: 0 Sayfa: 466-472 ISSN: 0010-938X
Due to their capability to recover the initial shape, Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are widely used in many applications. Different grades are commercially available and they can be classified considering either their chemical compositions (e.g., Cu based, Ni based, Fe based) or according to their mechanical behaviour. The most used SMAs are the Ni based alloys thanks to their performances both in terms of mechanical resistance and in terms of fatigue resistance, but their costs are quite high. Cu based alloys are good competitors of the Ni based alloys. The recent optimization of their chemical composition improved both the corrosion resistance in aggressive environments and their mechanical performances. In this work, the influence of the grain size on fatigue crack propagation in two Cu-Zn-Al SMAs has been investigated focusing on the damage micromechanisms.
Preoxidised Cu surfaces and powdery Cu oxides were exposed to SO2 vapour in an oxygen-deprived humid atmosphere. The reaction products were investigated by XRD and SEM-EDX. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO4·CuSO4·2H2O results to be the only stable product. Cu(0) is detected in experiments on Cu(I) oxide. Based on the competition between Cu(I) disproportionation and Cu(II) reduction by SO2, a reaction pathway is proposed. Initially formed Chevreul’s salt exhibits orthorhombic symmetry and a phase transformation to the stable monoclinic structure occurs upon ageing at room temperature. A mechanistic analogy with bronze disease of archaeological artefacts has been pointed out.
DOI : 10.1016/j.corsci.2011.12.028 Anahtar Kelimeler :
B. SEM, B. XRD, C. Atmospheric corrosion, C. Anodic films, C. Interfaces
Cilt: 57 Sayı: 0 Sayfa: 104-113 ISSN: 0010-938X
Duplex stainless steels (DSS) fatigue crack propagation resistance is strongly affected by both microstructure and environment. In this work, environment influence on the fatigue crack propagation in a 22 Cr 5 Ni duplex and in a 25 Cr 7 Ni superduplex stainless steels is investigated considering three different stress ratios (R = Kmin/Kmax = 0.1, 0.5, 0.75). Tests are performed according to ASTM E 647 standard, both in air and under hydrogen charging conditions (0.1 M H2SO4 + 0.01 M KSCN aqueous solution, −0.9 V/SCE). Crack fracture surfaces are extensively analysed by means of a scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, crack paths are investigated by means of a crack profile analysis performed through a light optical microscope. Nickel coated fracture surface sections obtained for constant ΔK values are considered in order to analyse the loading (R values) and environment influence on fatigue crack paths.
In this work stress-induced microstructural transitions and crack initiation and growth mechanisms in a near equiatomic NiTi shape memory alloy have been analyzed, by means of both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations. In particular, miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens and a special testing machine have been used, which allow in situ XRD and SEM investigations during mechanical loading. Direct and reverse stress-induced phase transition mechanisms, between the parent austenitic phase and the product martensitic one, have been captured by XRD while crack initiation and propagation mechanisms have been observed by means of SEM investigations. These analyses revealed that stress-induced transformations occurs near the crack tip, as a consequence of the highly localized stress, which significantly affect the crack propagation mechanisms with respect to common metallic alloys. In fact, blunting does not occurs during mechanical loading and, in addition, complete crack closure is observed during unloading, as a consequence of the reverse transformation from product to parent phase.
In recent years, mechanical property of many SMA has improved in order to introduce these alloys in specific field of industry. Main examples of these alloys are the NiTi, Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni which are used in many fields of engineering such as aerospace or mechanical systems. Cu-Zn-Al alloys are characterized by good shape memory properties due to a bcc disordered structure stable at high temperature called β-phase, which is able to change by means of a reversible transition to a B2 structure after appropriate cooling, and reversible transition from B2 secondary to DO3 order, under other types of cooling. In β-Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys, the martensitic transformation is not in equilibrium at room temperature. It is therefore often necessary to obtain the martensitic structure, using a thermal treatment at high temperature followed by quenching. The martensitic phases can be either thermally-induced spontaneous transformation, or stressinduced, or cooling, or stressing the β- phase. Direct quenching from high temperatures to the martensite phase is the most effective because of the non-diffusive character of the transformation. The martensite inherits the atomic order from the β-phase. Precipitation of many kinds of intermetallic phases is the main problem of treatment on cu-based shape memory alloy. For instance, a precipitation of α-phase occurs in many low aluminum copper based SMA alloy and presence of α-phase implies a strong degradation of shape recovery. However, Cu-Zn-Al SMA alloys characterized by aluminum contents less than 5% cover a good cold machining and cost is lower than traditional NiTi SMA alloys. In order to improve the SMA performance, it is always necessary to identify the microstructural changing in mechanical and thermal conditions, using X-Ray analyses. In this work a Cu-Zn-Al SMA alloy obtained in laboratory has been microstructurally and metallographically characterized by means of X-Ray diffraction and Light Optical Microscope (LOM) observations. Furthermore a fatigue crack propagation and fracture surface scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations have been performed in order to evaluate the crack path and the main crack micromechanisms.
DOI : 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.30.55 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Cu alloys, Structure
ISSN: 1971-8993 Cilt: 8 Sayı: 30 Sayfa: 454 - 461
The article is devoted to the most acute problem of the modern world - the revision of the traditional fundamental values that are the basis for the existence of all humanity. Currently in many Western countries have adopted national laws on the «gay marriage», is legalized the right of adoption of children by same-sex couples , is under discussion decriminalization of incest and pedophilia. Despite the fact that same-sex relationships, as well as other «non-traditional relationship», are known since time immemorial, until the XX century, no one tried to equate them with the traditional family relationships, presenting them as the same norm. Moreover, in most of the countries that legalized same-sex relationships, these type of relationships is shown to children as «normal» and «natural.» Parents who try to prevent children from obtaining such knowledge, facing the responsibility from the administrative penalty to criminal penalties. The problem is compounded by the fact that the countries that legalized same-sex relationships, trying to actively promote and impose on other countries the so-called «LGBT rights» within the framework of international organizations, human rights treaty bodies, regional and international organizations. The author gives examples of national legislation and international norms of «soft law» in this area, adopted within the framework of the UN and the Council of Europe, analyzes them for compliance with the norms of international law, the main place among which is occupied by norms of international treaties recognizing the right to education. In the study of the right to education is considered a right of parents to raise their children according to their own moral, religious and philosophical convictions, as a basis for the protection of their children from non-traditional relationships propaganda. The article deals with the position of Russia opposite to the promotion of non-traditional relationships and the measures taken by it at the national level to protect against this propaganda, as well as its active position on the national and international levels to educate future generations on the basis of traditional values of humankind and its importance for the maintenance of national and international security.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
традиционные ценности, право на образование, международное право, права человека, нетрадиционные отношения, религия, дискриминация, Совет Европы, Европейский суд по правам человека
Sayı: 4 Sayfa: 82 - 98
The article features a comprehensive assessment of monuments dating back to the Final Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods located in the Chuvash Volga Region: topography, description of the structural aspects of studied dwellings, characteristics of the stone industry, bone articles, etc. All the described sites have deteriorated to a certain degree, and others have been lost completely. The author analyses all the available archaeological and natural scientific information, which suggests the cultural nature of the monuments. Sholma 1 site was presumably populated by wild horse hunters and related to the process of migration from the Forest-Steppe Area of the Lower Volga Region in the Final Paleolithic period. Monuments of the Mesolithic period located in the Chuvash Volga Region are linked by the author and other researchers to the cultural group of monuments with Post-Swiderian arrowheads and the Russko-Lugovskaya culture recently identified in the Mari Volga Region.
DOI : 10.24852/pa2017.3.21.190.210 Anahtar Kelimeler :
archaeology, the Chuvash Volga Region, Final Paleolithic, Mesolithic, settlements, stone industry, Russko-Lugovskaya culture
Cilt: 3 Sayı: 21 Sayfa: 190 - 210
The article contains a review which lays out the main concepts of reports and speeches by leading experts in the history of Russian literature of the second half of the twentieth century from Russia, Belarus, Bulgaria, and Germany. The reports and speeches under revision were made at the round table discussion dedicated to the 90th anniversary of V. M. Shukshin, held on November 15, 2019 within the framework of the St. Petersburg international cultural forum (section “Education”). The key issue for discussion is included in the title of the round table “Is Vasily Shukshin a modern classic?” The author argues that the scholars spoke mainly about the issues of literary anthropology, and most actively used a variety of analytical methods developed in line with the mythopoetic approach to the literary text. Especially significant were the attempts to find a modern language to characterize the universally gifted person and the modern literary situation.
DOI : 10.26170/FK2001-22 Anahtar Kelimeler :
interpretation codes, russian writers, literary creative activity, international cultural forums
Sayı: 1 Sayfa: 214 - 219
The article analyzes the main approaches to the problem of the validity of law. As a result a num-ber of aspects of the phenomenon designated as “the validity of law” are distinguished: normative sig-nificance, social and (or) psychological efficiency, objective givenness, a binding force. To fill the gap in the theoretical constructions the author proposes such a notion of the validity of law that is independ-ent of philosophical approaches. Legal validity is defined as a specific mechanism (force) of normative influence on people’s conduct. Therefore, the binding force of law is considered not as an obligation to obey the law, but as a mechanism of giving rise to legal obligations. Moreover in this article all existing variations of providing a rationale for the validity of law are classified into two main approaches: meta-physical and anti-metaphysical. Alf Ross’s (Danish legal philosopher, one of the most prominent repre-sentatives of Scandinavian legal realism) concept of legal validity is considered as a perfect example of the anti-metaphysical approach and is reconstructed along with the analysis of major terminological is-sues, which occur in translations and studies of his legacy. The author concludes that a key to a proper understanding of Ross’s concept is an appropriate terminological division between the two basic con-cepts, which reflect his viewpoint regarding the validity of law in the context of Is-Ought problem in law. The author proposes to translate the Danish term «gælden» into Russian as «deistvennost«, since it concerns law in force and its effectiveness, and «gyldighet» as «deistvitelnost«, since it implies a bind-ing force of law related to oughtness. Ross considers the former as a revelation of the latter in the reality and as a proper subject of jurisprudence (doctrinal study of law, based on strict empiricism, non-cognitivism, coherentism).
DOI : 10.22363/2313-2337-2017-21-3-396-414 Anahtar Kelimeler :
действительность права, природа права, действенность права, эффек-тивность права, нормативность права, обязывающая сила, Альф Росс, скандинавский правовой реализм
Cilt: 21 Sayı: 3 Sayfa: 396 - 414
The article identifies essence of the “audit result” and “users of audit result” notions and characteristics of the key audit results user. It shows that in order to give a wide characteristic of users it is expedient to unite all objects, which could be used (audit report, fact of refusal to conduct audit and information that is submitted to managers in the process of audit) with the term “audit result” and classify it depending on the terms of submission by final and intermediate result. The article offers to define audit results user as a person, persons or category of persons for whom the auditor prepares the audit report and, in cases, envisaged by international standards of the audit and domestic legislative and regulatory acts, provides other additional information concerning audit issues. In order to identify the key audit results user the article distributes all audit tasks into two groups depending on possibilities of identification of users. The article proves that the key user should be identified especially in cases of a mandatory audit and this process should go in interconnection with the mechanism of allocation of a key user of financial reports. It offers to consider external users with direct financial interests, who cannot request economic subjects directly to provide information and who should rely on general financial reports and audit report when receiving significant portion of information they need, as the key user. The article makes proposals on specification of the categorical mechanism in the sphere of audit, which are the basis for audit quality assessment, identification of possibilities and conditions of appearance of the necessary and sufficient trust to the auditor opinion.
The article is focused on history and logic of the evolution of projective techniques, as well as methodological problems concerning the arrangement of a study based on application of projective methods, and the analysis of the data obtained. A critical review is undertaken of the classical habit of thought regarding projective methods, and a new, non-classical approach is suggested. To lay a foundation for the suggested new approach there has been undertaken a research into peculiarities of a projective study implementation (with the CAT1 method being employed) with further consideration of the results on the material of a child development.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
history and logic of development of projective techniques
Cilt: 1 Sayı: 4 Sayfa: 243 - 260
Organizational and economical mechanism of HR-development management is presented in this article considering the description of the elements of administering and administrated subsystems, external and intra-organizational factors of influence are selected. В статье представлен организационно-экономический механизм управления развитием персонала с определением и описанием элементов управляемой и управляющей подсистем, выделением внешних и внутриорганизационных факторов влияния.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
organizational and economical mechanism, development management, personnel, operated and control subsystems, factors of influence, организационно-экономический механизм, управления развитием, персонал, управляемая и управляющая подсистемы, факторы влияния
Sayı: 6 Sayfa: 200 - 202
The aim of the article is an empirical study of economic security of Ukraine’s regions based on the developed canonical models. To investigate and systematize factors of regional economic security, methods of theoretical generalization are employed. Methods of system analysis, namely the method of canonical analysis, are used to identify latent factors ensuring effective management of regional economic security and develop forecast models of economic security in the regions. The method of comparison has enabled determining the general and distinguishing features of the results of calculating the economic security of the regions based on the two models. The application of the method of canonical analysis to estimating the data on socio-economic development of Ukraine’s regions for 2008-2015 allowed to develop models to forecast economic security of the regions. The results of the canonical analysis indicate that 97.08 % of the variation in the effective indicators of regional economic security is due to variations in the eleven symptom factors. The developed models for assessing regional economic security ZYi (by partial characteristics) and ZXi (by symptom factors) are correct and have a close relationship, which is confirmed by the value of the correlation coefficient (0.97). The applied nature of the proposed models is justified by their practical implementation based on the actual data of social and economic development of Ukraine’s regions for 2008-2016. The introduction of the developed models made it possible to determine that Dnipropetrovsk region has the best state of economic security by the results of 2016, and Lugansk region is the worst in terms of this indicator. In further research, it is appropriate to determine criteria for assessing economic security of the regions, build a matrix of regional economic security, and to formulate the characteristics of their economic security states.
This special forum for Studies in the Maternal asks fourteen activist-mother-artists, or “mamactivists”, to respond to the following questions: (1) When and why did you start making activist/political work on the maternal? (2) What reception/reaction did you receive for the work? (3) What is the latest activist/political work you have made on the maternal? (4) What shifts do you see from this first work to this last work? and (5) Why is the maternal, in your opinion, important to activist, engaged, political art today? Responses highlight a range of geographic and cultural perspectives, as well as artistic strategies. One commonality between them is that they take the maternal not as a biological facticity, but a rich feminist site of political intervention.
DOI : 10.16995/sim.224
ISSN: 1759-0434 Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2
This paper explores the role of curiosity in promoting cross-cultural knowledge creation and competence development. It is based on a study with four international higher educational institutions, all of which offer management and business education for local and international students. The reality of multicultural and intercultural relationships is researched using constructivist grounded theory method, with data collected through indepth interviews, long-term observation and participation, and discussion of the social reality as it was experienced by the participants. The study applies the concepts of cultural knowledge development, cross-cultural competence and cultural distance. Based on the comparative analysis, curiosity emerged as a personal condition conducive to the cultural knowledge development process. The paper presents a cross-cultural competence development process model, which takes into account the cultural curiosity of the learners. The paper also provides tentative recommendations for the steps that knowledge-creating multicultural organizations can take to develop cross-cultural exchange, cultural knowledge creation and cross-cultural competence development.
The aim of the study is to substantiate the areas of introducing strategic change management in an enterprise under conditions of the active impact of the business environment. It is indicated that management of strategic changes in an enterprise is the targeted impact of the management system on the enterprise as a platform of strategic changes in order to transfer it from one state to another (desirable) in accordance with the strategic goals defined by its stakeholders and the conditions set by the environment. It is determined that the introduction of strategic change management in enterprises has a number of features determined, first, by the specifics of this process as an integrated component of strategic management; secondly, the operation of the enterprise as a socio-economic system, within the framework of which the functional of strategic changes is connected with the activity of the human factor and the functioning of the team and participants in the changes. The introduction of strategic change management in enterprises is based on the triangle of strategic changes developed by A. Pettigrew, which includes the context, content and process of strategic change management. To choose the areas of strategic changes in an enterprise, the author suggests four directions of management actions based on the prevalence of the type of change drivers and the strategic situation. Within each of the directions there defined: intensity of strategic changes, duration of the implementation lag, recording the state of resources, level of resistance of the corporate culture to the changes and its state with regard to them. It is indicated that a prerequisite for ensuring an effective implementation of strategic changes is the formation of a fiduciary corporate culture with regard to the changes in the enterprise and the minimization of the risks of introducing and implementing the strategic change management system in the enterprise. The study identifies the following types of risks of strategic changes: personnel, process and technological, resource, market and organizational one.
: The article is devoted to pre-crisis situation (2014 – 2016) analysis of ethnic relations in Russia and European countries with considering studying ethnic tension by domestic experience. Ethnic tension is considering as a social psychological characteristic reflect the imbalance in social relations, resulting from the escalating conflict between ethnic groups.The empirical foundation of study is the ESS database. Indicators of ethnic tension, such as relations to relocation of immigrants into the country of the respondent, the assessment of changes that bring immigrants are analyzed. Detaching the analogues to those indicators in the ESS allowed to construct an index of ethnic tension and to compare it’s values in the European countries.The countries with the lowest (Scandinavia) and the highest level of ethnic tensions (Cyprus, Russia, Czech Republic, Portugal, Hungary) are revealed. Most ethnic tensions observed in younger and older age groups, as well as in the group of women, and among respondents with low education and low income, living in villages.In the context of the main causes of ethnic tensions (cultural characteristics of ethnic groups interacting), highlighted the factors that consistently influence on ethnic tensions, such as the size of GDP per capita, the proportion of migrants in total population, the number of migrants who arrived in the last 5 years, trust the people, occupation.
A detailed study of the performance of resistive plate chambers, operated in streamer mode and filled with ozone safe gas mixtures, is reported; efficiency, time resolution, strip multiplicity, etc., have been measured both at atmospheric and at low pressure, to simulate a possible use of these detectors at high altitude.