Ticks are important ectoparasites, causing a variety of serious infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals. There is very limited taxonomic information about the tick species of Turkey in the literature, even though Turkey has very suitable climate and vegetation for ticks. In the current study, species diversity, hosts and geographical distribution of the ticks present in Turkey are reviewed based on taxonomic data in the literature from 1915 to 2011 and our recent observations. The names of tick species are arranged according to the most recent check lists. The taxonomic records in the literature and our studies on actual tick samples indicated that the tick fauna of Turkey consists of 46 species; 38 species from Ixodidae and 8 species from Argasidae.
Ticks are mandatory blood feeding ectoparasites leading transmission of various tick-borne pathogens to human and animals. Since 2002, thousands of human tick bites and numerous Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever cases have been reported in several provinces in the Kelkit Valley region in Turkey. Despite increased cases of tick bites and tick-borne diseases, no taxonomic information is available about the tick species infesting humans in the region. In the present study, a tick survey on humans was performed to determine the species composition of ticks infesting humans in several provinces of Kelkit Valley. In the survey, 1,460 ticks (721 males, 516 females and 223 nymphs) were collected from tick-infested humans. A total of 19 tick species have been found on humans in the region, including 7 Hyalomma, 2 Argas, 2 Haemaphysalis, 2 Ixodes, Dermacentor and 3 Rhipicephalus species. Infestation of Dermacentor reticulatus on humans was documented for the first time in Turkey.
A total of 229 attached hard ticks were collected from humans in Yozgat province (Turkey) in 2009. All ticks were individually examined for the presence of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) rickettsiae using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting rickettsial citrate synthase (gltA) and outer membrane protein (ompA) genes. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 24 (10.5%) tick samples belonging to Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer) (9 males, 3 females), Hyalomma marginatum Koch (8 males, 2 females) and Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann) (2 males). Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in H. marginatum, Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia slovaca in D. marginatus; Rickettsia hoogstraalii in H. parva ticks. With the present study, the presence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks was reported in Yozgat province for the first time.
In order to identify ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces in Turkey, a total of 2110 ticks representing 14 species were collected on humans, between June and September 2009. Of those, 1551 (687♂, 450♀, 407 nymphs, 7 larvae) were collected from Corum and 559 (330♂, 180♀, 49 nymphs) were collected from Yozgat. The majority of ticks (n = 1121, 53.1 %) was Hyalomma marginatum. Other common ticks infesting humans were Dermacentor marginatus (n = 209, 9.9 %) and Rhipicephalus turanicus sensu lato (n = 145, 6.9 %) in the study area. In addition, a total of 386 immature Hyalomma were found on humans in Corum (335 nymphs, 7 larvae) and Yozgat (44 nymphs). Ixodes laguri and Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica were recorded for the first time in Corum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat, except individual or incidental records. The present study provides useful information for those concerned with ticks and tick-borne diseases in Turkey.
Ticks are major vectors of numerous diseases affecting animals and humans. Presence of various tick-borne pathogens such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in various tick species was documented. CCHF is a severe tick-borne illness caused by the CCHFV which is a member of the Nairovirus genus (family: Bunyaviridae). Presence of CCHFV was shown in the most prevalent ixodid tick species such as Hyalomma marginatum and Rhiphicephalus bursa in Turkey. In the present study, prevalence and species diversity of ixodid ticks carrying CCHFV in Tokat province where CCHF is highly endemic were determined by using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). As a result, 15 out 745 ticks from various hosts (2%) were found to be CCHFV positive. The CCHFV positive ticks were Haemaphysalis concinna, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma turanicum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhiphicephalus turanicus indicating that multiple ixodid tick species may contribute to transmission of CCHFV to humans and animals in Turkey.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.11.010 Anahtar Kelimeler :
CCHFV, Ixodid, Ticks, RRT-PCR, Tokat
ISSN: 0304-4017 Sayı: 3-4 Cilt: 186 Sayfa: 546-552
In order to determine the species composition of infesting ticks, between 2011 and 2012 a total of 1118 wild animals were captured from various regions of Zara, Sivas province, Turkey. A total of 138 ticks were obtained from the 58 host animals. Ticks were identified as Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica Pospelova-Shtrom, Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann), Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis sulcata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Ixodes laguri Olenev, Ixodes ricinus (L.), Ixodes vespertilionis Koch and Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev. To the best of our knowledge, there are several new host records for D. marginatus, H. e. taurica and I. laguri. In addition, I. vespertilionis was recorded for the first time in the Central Anatolian Region in Turkey, whereas I. laguri and H. e. taurica are firstly reported in Sivas.
Ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animal and human health. Tokat Province, Turkey, is a suitable habitat for extended tick activity with its moderate climate and vegetation. In the present study, we surveyed humans visiting health centers to determine the species diversity, geographical distribution, and seasonal activity of ixodid ticks infesting them. Out of 5,999 adult ticks collected from humans from April to September, 2008, 800 ticks were identified to species, while the remaining were identified to genus according to their distinct morphological characteristics. Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes laguri were the most prevalent tick species among 24 ixodid tick species infesting humans in the region. One of these tick species, Hyalomma isacii was identified as a new record for the ixodid tick fauna of Turkey. Hyalomma species were the most abundant in summer, while Dermacentor and Ixodes species displayed the lowest frequency. Hyalomma aegyptium infestation was very common on humans in the province. Results indicated that a variety of ixodid tick species infest humans depending on the season in the target area. It is possible that a variety of ixodid tick species may contribute to the spread of tick‐borne diseases such as Crimean‐Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is endemic in the region.
Gynandromorphism is a rare, abnormal phenomenon in which both female and male characteristics are simultaneously displayed in an organism. It has been described in many arthropods, including ticks. This unique occurrence is known within several species of Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes, and Rhipicephalus. Bipartite protogynander is the most common form of gynandromorphism, whereas gynander intriqué is the rarest type among the ticks. Here, we report the first case of a gynandromorph of Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844 collected from a naturally infested human during a tick survey in the Tokat Province of Turkey in 2006. It is an interesting gynander intriqué, with features of a protogynander. The tick described here displays abnormal characters such as an alloscutum with a male consucutum in dorsal view, male and female spiracular plates, female genital aperture under the male genital flap, and adanal plates located on the both side of the anus, whereas accessory plates are on the left side only in ventral view.
Ticks continue to be a threat to human and animal health in Turkey, as they are considered important vectors of human and animal diseases. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the microbial communities of two tick species, Rhipicephalus annulatus and Dermacenter marginatus, analyze patterns of co-occurrence among microbial taxa, identify and compare pathogens contributing human diseases, and determine whether avirulent symbionts could exclude human pathogens from tick communities. Furthermore, this study explores a microbiome of the R. annulatus and D. marginatus via the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to describe their bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females isolated from humans from two high-risk Turkish provinces, Sivas and Amasya, during tick outbreaks in 2009. A total of 36,253 sequences were utilized for analyses of the 8 tick samples. Several pathogenic genera such as Francisella, Coxiella, Rickettsia, and Shigella were detected in the ticks tested. The most distinguishable difference between the two species of ticks was the lack of known human pathogen Rickettsia in R. annulatus and in samples 9 and 10 of D. marginatus. These samples had higher relative abundance of Flavobacterium sp., Curvibacter sp., Acidovorax sp., and Bacteroidaceae genera mostly representing symbionts which form a large component of normal tick microbiota. The outcome of this study is consistent with the predictions of the community ecological theory that diversity-rich bacteriomes are more resistant to bacterial invasion (and consequent pathogen dissemination) than diversity-deprived ones.
Turkey has a wide range of flora and fauna due to its climatic diversity. Medicinal plants from Turkey have been used since ancient times for their primary health care. In this study, we examined antiproliferative activities of the extracts from Crataegus monogyna, Vitis vinifera, Glycrrhiza glabra, Alnus glutinosa L. gaertn, and Alcea rosea against rat brain tumor (C6) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The results were compared with the standard anticancer drugs 5-Flurouracil (5-FU) and Cisplatin. C. monogyna, V. vinifera and A. rosea exhibited better antiproliferative activity than 5-FU and cisplatin at 100-75 µg/mL concentrations, against C6 cell lines. On the other hand, C. monogyna and V. vinifera extracts showed considerable antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells compared with 5-FU and cisplatin at 100-75 µg/mL. It can be suggested that, C. monogyna, A. glutinosa L. gaertn, V. vinifera and A. rosea extracts could be developed as an anticancer drug. GRAPHICAL
Several species of Echinacea, a perennial plant which belongs to the Asteraceae family, possess medicinal properties and are currently used in phytotherapy. In the present study, antiproliferative activity of methanol extract and isolated structures of pentadeca-(8E, 13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one 1 and (E)-1,8-pentadecadiene 2 from Echinacea pallida roots on C6 cells (Rat Brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) was investigated in vitro. Antiproliferative effect of the extract, isolated compounds, and cisplatin were tested at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, and 100 μg ml−1 using BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA. The methanol extract and Compound 1 significantly inhibited proliferation of HeLa and C6 cancer cell lines.
DOI : 10.1007/s00044-012-0297-2 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Echinacea pallida, Antiproliferative activity, C6 cancer cell line, HeLa cancer cell line, Isolation
ISSN: 1054-2523 1554-8120 Sayı: 6 Cilt: 22 Sayfa: 2946-2953
Ticks are among the most significant human-biting ectoparasites and they play a major role in transmission of many pathogenic agents to humans. In the present study, three species of Hyalomma ticks, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum and H. excavatum, were examined for the presence of zoonotic bacteria, both male and female ticks alike. Examination of microbial diversity with tag-encoded pyrosequencing indicates that H. marginatum and H. excavatum were more diversity rich than H. aegyptium. Although numerous pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial genera were detected, including Acidovorax, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Bdellovibrio, Clostridium, Curvibacter, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Limnohabitans, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia, Sarcina, Sediminibacterium, Segetibacter Stenotrophomonas and Variovorax, the predominant zoonotic bacteria represented in these ticks were genera Borrelia, Francisella, and Rickettsia. To the authors’ knowledge, this work represents the first detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in the tick H. excavatum, raising questions regarding the vector competency of this tick, as well as associations of different disease representations perhaps through previously unforeseen routes of pathogen introduction. Likewise, similar questions are related to the presence of Legionella pneumophila in one H. excavatum sample.
Nigella sativa and N. damascena are major spices and aromatic plants that are cultivated commonly in Turkey. The fatty acid compositions of full maturated seeds in the species were compared in the research. Variations in the fatty acid composition of the oil in the species were also examined during the four maturation stages of seeds, immature, premature, mature, and delayed mature. Quantitative variation in the fatty acid compositions were significantly (p < 0.01) different between the species. Linoleic and palmitic acid contents were higher statistically (p < 0.01) in N. sativa with 57.0 and 12.5 %, respectively while the oleic acid content was higher in N. damascena with 32.2 %. During the maturation stages, linoleic acid—the main fatty acid in both species—contents decreased regularly from 57 to 51 % during maturation stages in both species. On the other hand, the oleic acid amount (the main saturated fatty acid in both species), increased from immature stages to delayed mature stages and were found to be 20.0 and 27.2 %, respectively. According to the results, it can be concluded that harvesting from fully mature stages is preferable than other stages. This is due not only to the significant difference in fatty acid content of immature and premature stages but also the harvesting loss of the delayed maturation stages.
Heavy metals such as Cd are considered to be the most important pollutants in soil contamination. Cd is a non-essential element adversely affecting plant growth and development, and it has caused some physiological and molecular changes. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, and metal binding proteins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the MT gene expression levels and minerals uptake in the tissues of Solanum lycopersicum exposed to Cd. The transcriptional expression of the MT genes was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The MT genes were regulated by the Cd and the mineral elements uptake changed tissue type and applied doses. The MT1 and MT2 transcript levels increased in the roots, the leaves and the fruits of the tomato. The MT3 and MT4 transcript pattern changed according to the tissue types. The Cd treatment on the growth medium increased the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and fruits of the tomato. However, the Cd affected the mineral levels in the roots depending on the mineral types and doses. Also, the Cd content increased in the roots, the leaves, and the fruits of the tomato, respectively. The results presented in this study show that Cd has synergistic and/or antagonistic effects on minerals depending on the tissue types. These results indicate that the MT1 and MT2 expression pattern increased together with the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and the fruits of the tomato.
Deformed wing virus (DWV), a member of the genus iflavirus of the insect picorna-like viruses, is one of the most common honey bee viruses transmitted by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor during pupal stages, and is associated with wing deformities in adult honeybees. Although no data are available from Turkey up till now, DWV have been reported in many countries from all continents. In the present study, we tested the presence of DWV in Apis mellifera L and V. destructor from Ordu province of Turkey using one step reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). We were able to demonstrate that all of the worker bees with deformed wings and the varroa mites but not healthy bees were infected with DWV. BLAST analysis of the sequences of PCR products showed 96-98% similarity to polyprotein gene of known DWV virus isolates.
Future of the traditional beekeeping is to implement smart apiary management and start to use automatic and remote tools for bee colony monitoring together with beehive control mechanisms to improve bee colony productivity. Within the ERA-NET ICT-Agri project “ITAPIC” different bee colony monitoring and control systems together with its combinations were introduced and analysed. This paper presents authors vision for implementation of Precision Beekeeping together with the smart apiary concept. Different parameters of the bee colony can be monitored: temperature, humidity, gas content, sound, vibration etc. Continuous monitoring of some bee colony parameters is very challenging and not user friendly, allowing using it only for research purposes, not for practical implementation by the beekeepers. Precision beekeeping idea is to introduce tools that can be easily implemented into beekeeping practice. This paper describes developed systems and its combinations for successful smart apiary management. Developed systems are based on temperature, sound and video monitoring. Both data transmission types: wired and wireless are applied and compared. As well discussion of automatic beehive heating or/and cooling system implementation into practice is opened. As apiaries usually are placed outside in rural areas, important part of the smart beekeeping is usage of alternative energy for powering all the devices. Most suitable alternative power supply to this moment is usage of solar power with solar panels, which can be mounted on the hive. Together with hardware part it is needed to develop software part for data observation. Software part should be developed as a web system or/and mobile application. Cloud system with decision support functionality and with additional option for informing the beekeepers about changes in the state of the bee colonies could be considered as well.
DOI : 10.1109/carpathiancc.2016.7501207 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Monitoring, Temperature sensors, Wireless communication, Temperature measurement, Wireless sensor networks, Agriculture, Information technology, agriculture, building integrated photovoltaics, monitoring, precision engineering, productivity, solar cell arrays, alternative energy, alternative power supply, solar power, solar panels, data observation, mobile application, cloud system, decision support functionality, smart beekeeping, cooling system, automatic beehive heating, data transmission types, video monitoring, beekeeping practice, precision beekeeping idea, beekeepers, bee colony parameters, continuous monitoring, vibration, sound, gas content, humidity, temperature, smart apiary concept, control systems, ITAPIC, ERA-NET ICT-Agri project, bee colony productivity, beehive control mechanisms, bee colony monitoring, remote tools, smart apiary management, Precision Apiculture, Precision Beekeeping, bee colony monitoring, smart beekeeping, smart apiary