Michael R ShurinDepartments of Pathology and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: The link between oncology and immunology has a long history and its development is forced by the necessity to develop innovative and highly efficient modalities for immunological destruction of malignant cells. The limited efficacy of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation also exemplify these issues, as these treatments do not eliminate all cancerous cells, do not address the immunosuppressive nature of the disease and can further impair the patient's immune response weakening patient's resistance to the cancer. Multidisciplinary analysis of the interaction between the immune system and cancer in preclinical and clinical settings suggests that the immune system is closely intertwined with both cancer pathogenesis and treatment. On the one hand, cancer is a manifestation of malfunctions in immunity, as malignant cells manage to escape recognition and elimination by the immune system. Chronic infections and inflammation associated with limited or polarized immune responses also contribute to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The tumor immunoenvironment represents specific conditions and elements that support cancerous cell survival, proliferation and spreading. On the other hand, the specificity and strength of antitumor immunity is a powerful and efficient tool that can be used to recognize and destroy neoplastic cells or their supporting microenvironment. Understanding the role of the immune system in controlling and supporting tumor initiation, formation, growth and progression has crucial implications for cancer therapy and will therefore guide the future development of cancer immunotherapy and its combination with conventional therapies to achieve optimal antitumor effects in patients with different types of cancer.Keywords: tumor immunology and immunotherapy, tumor immunoenvironment, cancer, immunosuppression, regulatory immune cells
Michael R Shurin1,21Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USADuring the last decade, we have witnessed exhilarating progress in the expansion of immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer treatment. In part, this has been because of discovery and development of antibodies which can block immune inhibitory receptors unleashing antitumor immune responses – the so-called checkpoint inhibitors. Blocking cancer progression by eliminating brakes on immune effector cells in the tumor environment has jointly earned James P Allison, PhD (Department of Immunology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USA) and Tasuku Honjo, MD, PhD (Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan) the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2018. Whereas the concept of cancer immunosurveillance dates back more than 100 years, the study of Allison’s and Honjo’s teams over the past few decades not only confirmed the idea but also converted it into an effective immunotherapeutic tactic, which dramatically improved outcomes for some cancer patients.
Gulnur K Zakiryanova,1 Sarah Wheeler,2 Michael R Shurin2 1Department Biophysics and Biomedicine, Faculty Biology and Biotechnology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan; 2Division of Clinical Immunopathology, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The role of deregulated expression of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in tumor development has been intensively investigated for decades. However, expression of oncogenes and their potential role in immune cell defects during carcinogenesis and tumor progression have not been thoroughly assessed. The defects in proto-oncogenes have been well documented and evaluated mostly in tumor cells, despite the fact that proto-oncogenes are expressed in all cells, including cells of the immune system. In this review, key studies from immune-mediated diseases that may be associated with oncogene signaling pathways are refocused to provide groundwork for beginning to understand the effects of oncogenes in and on the cancer-related immune system dysfunction. Keywords: oncogenes, immune cells, NK cells, Myc, cancer
Anahtar Kelimeler :
oncogenes, immune cells, NK cells, cancer
ISSN: 2253-1556 Cilt: 7 Sayfa: 21 - 28
Michael R Shurin,1,2 Alison Morris,3 Alan Wells,1 Sarah E Wheeler1 1Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USACorrespondence: Michael R Shurin Email email@example.comIn the XXI century, we have already witnessed the global spread of three previously unknown coronaviruses. In 2002, the first known case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China and SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was identified in 2003.1 Before SARS pandemic was declared to be over in summer of 2003, about 8500 cases were reported, including almost 900 deaths in 32 countries. Ten years later, in 2012, a novel coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was isolated and was proven to be associated with several clusters of cases, first in the Arabian Peninsula and then in other countries. As a result, almost 2500 cases including more than 850 deaths in 27 countries have been reported.2 In 2019, a novel β-coronavirus caused severe and even fatal pneumonia in Wuhan China, and rapidly spread to other provinces of China and other countries in 2020. The World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) a pandemic. By mid-May 2020, more than 300,000 people have died and over 4,000,000 have been infected by the coronavirus in almost 200 countries and territories worldwide.