The internal stress of the human foot enables efficient parametric evaluation of structural and functional impairments associated with foot deformities, such as hallux valgus (HV). However, the status of the internal stress of such a deformed foot remains insufficiently addressed due to the difficulties and limitations of experimental approaches. This study, using finite element (FE) methodology, investigated the influence of severe HV deformity on the metatarsal stress and the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint loading during balanced standing. FE models of a normal foot and a severe HV were constructed and validated. Each FE model involves 28 bones and various cartilaginous structures, ligaments, and plantar fascia, as well as encapsulated soft tissue. All the materials except for the encapsulated soft tissue were considered isotropic and linearly elastic, while the encapsulated soft tissue was set as nonlinear hyperelastic. Hexahedral elements were assigned to the solid parts of bones, cartilage, and the encapsulated soft tissue. Link elements were assigned to ligaments and plantar fascia. A plate was created for simulating ground support. A vertical force of a half-body weight was applied on the bottom of the plate for simulating balanced standing loading. The superior surfaces of the encapsulated soft tissue, distal tibia, and distal fibula were fixed. Stress distribution in the metatarsals, contact pressure, and force at the MTP joints were comparatively analysed. Compared to the normal foot, the HV foot showed higher stress concentration in the metatarsals but lower magnitude of MTP joint loading. In addition, the region with high contact pressure at the first MTP joint shifted medially in the HV foot. Knowledge of this study indicates that patients with severe HV deformity are at higher risk of metatarsal injuries and functional impairment of the MTP joints while weight bearing.
The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant threat to human health around the world. A severe risk of infection has been observed in elderly populations. In addition, individuals with obesity and obesity-related comorbidities have also been identified to be at a higher risk of infection for COVID-19. We have attempted here to provide evidence in support of exercise management as a prevention strategy for improving health and minimizing the effects of COVID-19. Therefore, exercise duration, frequency, and intensity benefits are summarized in an attempt to provide guidelines for the general population. In terms of exercise effects, there are multiple benefits of exercise related to human health. These include, decreases in adipose tissue, improvements in cardio-respiratory fitness, enhanced metabolic homeostasis, and suppress inflammation active. With respect to the amount of exercise performed individuals should exercise at a moderate intensity for at least 150 min/wk as an initial target. Increases in intensity and duration of exercise training are necessary for significant fitness benefits, weight loss, and prevention of weight regain. In relation to walking, 10,000 steps/day at a rate of 64–170 steps/minute for at least 10 min duration is reasonable for healthy adults. For exercise intensity, a combination of resistance training (RT), aerobic training (AT) as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT) incorporated with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) can be recognized as an optimal exercise mode for health benefits. Aerobic training and MICT should be viewed as a basis for exercise in combination with appropriate volumes and types of RT and HIIT. Activities should be performed according to professional guidelines and advice. If implemented, these measures may reduce infection rates, underlying pathologies, and assist in decreasing mortality associated with COVID-19 pandemic.
DOI : 10.3389/fphys.2020.572718 Anahtar Kelimeler :
coronavirus 2019, obesity, overweight, exercise, health
ISSN: 1664-042X Cilt: 11