Results of instantaneous spectra observations, carred out at the RATAN-600 during six sets in 1995-1996, are used. We analyse a behaviour of an effective width of spectra, turnover frequency and maximal flux density.
This article preliminarily analyzes a corpus of fifteenth-century Persianate paintings preserved in the Topkapi and Diez albums. It investigates the album paintings as the pictorial evidence to the Persianate first-hand encounter with Ming China. The paintings feature their emphasis on physiognomic verisimilitude of the painted figures and faithful description of their props and clothing. As a totality, they formulate the proto-ethnographic knowledge on China in the Persianate consciousness of this period. The last section on the representation of Chinese beauty, on the other hand, shows how pre-existing stereotyped imagination merged with the first-hand observation.
Yaya Yu, Swei Sunny Hann Laboratory of Tumor Biology, The Second Clinical Collage of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Swei Sunny HannLaboratory of Tumor Biology, The Second Clinical Collage of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, No. 111, Dade Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 020-39318472Email email@example.comAbstract: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial regulatory roles in fundamental biological processes, and deregulations of lncRNAs have been linked to numerous human diseases, especially cancers. Of particular interest in this regard is lncRNA GAS5, which is mainly identified as a tumor suppressor in several cancers. GAS5 was significantly low expressed in multiple cancers and was associated with clinic-pathological characteristics and patient survival, indicating a novel potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, and a therapeutic target for cancer. Functionally, GAS5 is involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion, apoptosis, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and drug resistance, among others, via multiple molecular mechanisms, such as binding to DNA sequences, forming RNA–DNA triplex complex, triggering or suppressing the expression of genes, binding proteins to form chromatin-modifying complex, which activates or represses gene expression, and acting as miRNA sponge to suppress miRNA expression, leading to regulation of miRNA target genes. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge and role of GAS5 in clinical relevance, biological functions and molecular mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of expression and function of GAS5 in cancer. Finally, the potential prospective role as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in cancer is discussed.Keywords: GAS5, cancer, tumor suppressor, biomarker, therapeutic target
Le Ren, Yue Yu Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a very challenging malignancy with late presentation, metastatic potential, chemoresistance, and poor prognosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of multitude number of genes. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been linked to the development of various malignancies, including PDAC. A series of miRNAs have been defined as holding promise for early diagnostics, as indicators of therapy resistance, and even as markers for prognosis in PDAC patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in diagnosis, chemoresistance, and prognosis in PDAC patients. Keywords: pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, miRNA, diagnosis, prognosis, chemoresistance
Stable cell adhesion is vital for structural integrity and functional efficacy. Yet how low affinity adhesion molecules such as CD2 and CD58 can produce stable cell adhesion is still not completely understood. In this paper, we present a theoretical model that simulates the accumulation of CD2 and CD58 in the contact area of a Jurkat T lymphoblast and a CD58-containing substrate. The cell is assumed to have a spherical shape initially and it is allowed to spread gradually on a circular substrate. Mobile CD2 and CD58 can diffuse freely on both the cell and substrate. Their binding in the contact area is controlled by first-order kinetics. The contact area grows linearly with the total number of CD2/CD58 bonds. Cellular deformation and cytoskeleton involvement were not considered. This time-dependent moving-boundary problem was solved with the Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme and the variable space grid method. Our simulated results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations. The role of diffusion becomes more and more prominent during the contact area increase, which is not sensitive to the kinetic rate constants tested in this study. However, it is very sensitive to the dissociation equilibrium constant and the concentrations of CD2 and CD58.
The transmembrane protein TMEM16A forms a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel that is permeable to many anions, including SCN−, I−, Br−, Cl−, and HCO3−, and has been implicated in various physiological functions. Indeed, controlling anion permeation through the TMEM16A channel pore may be critical in regulating the pH of exocrine fluids such as the pancreatic juice. The anion permeability of the TMEM16A channel pore has recently been reported to be modulated by Ca2+-calmodulin (CaCaM), such that the pore of the CaCaM-bound channel shows a reduced ability to discriminate between anions as measured by a shift of the reversal potential under bi-ionic conditions. Here, using a mouse TMEM16A clone that contains the two previously identified putative CaM-binding motifs, we were unable to demonstrate such CaCaM-dependent changes in the bi-ionic potential. We confirmed the activity of CaCaM used in our study by showing CaCaM modulation of the olfactory cyclic nucleotide–gated channel. We suspect that the different bi-ionic potentials that were obtained previously from whole-cell recordings in low and high intracellular [Ca2+] may result from different degrees of bi-ionic potential shift secondary to a series resistance problem, an ion accumulation effect, or both.
This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous firms that face search complementarities in the formation of vendor contracts. Search complementarities amplify small differences in productivity among firms. Market concentration fosters monopsony power in the labor market, magnifying profits and further enhancing highproductivity firms’ output share. Firms want to get bigger and hire more workers, in stark contrast with the classic monopsony model, where a firm aims to reduce the amount of labor it hires. The combination of search complementarities and monopsony power induces a strong “Matthew effect” that endogenously generates superstar firms out of uniform idiosyncratic productivity distributions. Reductions in search costs increase market concentration, lower the labor income share, and increase wage inequality.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
market concentration, monopsony power in the labor market, superstar firms, search complementarities
We develop a quantitative business cycle model with search complementarities in the inter-firm matching process that entails a multiplicity of equilibria. An active static equilibrium with strong joint venture formation, large output, and low unemployment can coexist with a passive static equilibrium with low joint venture formation, low output, and high unemployment. Changes in fundamentals move the system between the two static equilibria, generating large and persistent business cycle fluctuations. The volatility of shocks is important for the selection and duration of each static equilibrium. Sufficiently adverse shocks in periods of low macroeconomic volatility trigger severe and protracted downturns. The magnitude of government intervention is critical to foster economic recovery in the passive static equilibrium, while it plays a limited role in the active static equilibrium.
Yuan Yu,1 Huihong Li,2 Ying Sun1 1Department of Education, School of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Administration Department, Tianjin Experimental Kindergarten, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Ying SunDepartment of Education, School of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 22 2740 5948Email firstname.lastname@example.org We read with great interest the article by Styk et al.1 In their study, the authors found that persistence is associated with body image which evaluated by subjective body weight assessment. In addition, a positive correlation between the distractor resistance index and body mass index (BMI) was found. We wish to express our opinion on the topic and statistical method in this research. View the original paper by Wojciech Styk and colleagues
Formation and vitrification of the capillary bridges is believed critical to matrix assisted room temperature drying of biologics. In this paper, a Capillary Bridge Criterion (CB Criterion) is derived to predict the wetting morphology with CB > 0 to form capillary bridges, otherwise, form droplets. To simulate the drying of the formed capillary bridge with pure water or trehalose solution, a continuum model is constructed to predict its surface instability and solute distribution. For the eva... Expand abstract
Yaya Yu,1 Jing Xiao,2 Swei Sunny Hann1,31Laboratory of Tumor Biology, The Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510120, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Gynecology, The Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510120, People’s Republic of China; 3Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, The Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510120, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs that interact with PIWI proteins, which are members of the argonaute family. Originally described in the germline, piRNAs are also expressed in human somatic cells in a tissue-specific manner. piRNAs are involved in spermatogenesis, germ stem-cell maintenance, silencing of transposon, epigenetic and genomic regulation and rearrangement. A large number of studies have demonstrated that expression of piRNAs is involved in many kinds of disease, including cancer. Abnormal expression of piRNAs is emerging as a critical player in cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, piRNAs maintain genomic integrity by repressing the mobilization of transposable elements, and regulate the expression of downstream target genes via transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, altered expression of piRNAs in cancer is linked to clinical outcome, highlighting the important role that they may play as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and as therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. In this review, we focus on the biogenesis and the functional roles of piRNAs in cancers, discuss emerging insights into the roles of piRNAs in the occurrence, progression, and treatment of cancers, reveal various mechanisms underlying piRNAs-mediated gene regulation, and highlight their potential clinical utilities as biomarkers as well as potential targets for cancer treatment.Keywords: PIWI-interacting RNA, cancer, biogenesis, biomarkers, therapeutics
A synthesis of logical circuits, comprising functional combination blocks of very large scale integration circuits, is one of the most important tasks of computer-aided design. As the data size of design tasks increases, the execution time of synthesis of logic circuits also increases. The global technological independent optimization as the first stage of synthesis of logical circuit is especially labor-consuming. The second stage is technological mapping of optimized logical representations of functions to the logical elements of technological library. The main features of logical circuit, such as area, performance, power consumption, depend on the efficiency of the first stage – global logical optimization. The evolution of methods of global logical optimization has revealed the efficiency of Shannon expansion in case of optimization of multi-level representations of the systems of fully defined Boolean function. A number of methods and programs were developed using graphical representations of Shannon expansions – BDD representations. Most of the developed methods of optimization of BDD-representations use the initial representations of functions systems in the form of disjunctive normal form (DNF).In the article an algorithm of minimization of nodes number of Boolean net, which is a multi-level representation of the system of fully defined Boolean function, is proposed. Minimization is based on Shannon expansion and a search of equal (with accuracy up to inversion) nodes in Boolean net. Such algorithm of logical optimization was implemented as application. The experiments have shown that this algorithm and the application is reasonable to use in cases when the initial multi-level representation of functions is impossible to define as DNF system, or when DNF system contains a large number of elementary conjunctions.
Yuqiang Mao,1 Ying Yu,2 Yun Han1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China; 2Liaoning Medical Device Test Institute, Shenyang 110179, China Background: This study aimed to clarify the effect of thoracic drainage fluid (DF) on lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods: We assessed the influence of DF on the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells (LTEP-a-2 and A549) using the MTT cell proliferation assay and scratch wound assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis. We also investigated the effect of DF on drug chemosensitivity, assessing viability of LTEP-a-2 and A549 cells. Results: The proliferative rates of cancer cells in the DF-treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Similar results were obtained for cell migration of lung cancer cells. Cells in the DF-treated groups showed a lower percentage of apoptosis than those of the control groups. Chemosensitivity of lung cancer cells to doxycycline and cisplatin (DDP) was lowered by DF. Conclusion: These findings suggest that DF affects lung cancer cells by promoting proliferation and migration, inhibiting apoptosis, and increasing drug resistance. Keywords: lung cancer, drainage fluid, proliferation and migration, apoptosis, drug resistance
Yang Yu,* Xiao Feng,* Shundong Cang Department of Oncology, Henan Province People’s Hospital, Henan University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and aim: Some cancer-specific miRNAs are dysregulated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) and involved in cell autophagy, differentiation, proliferation, migration, invasion, and malignant transformation. The aim of our study was to determine a panel of new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for PAAD. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of global miRNA-expression profiles and corresponding prognosis information of 168 PAAD patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas data set. A total of 16 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified as aberrantly expressed in PAAD, and six of these were evaluated for use as diagnostic markers for PAAD. Next, we confirmed a two-miRNA signature significantly associated with PAAD patient diagnosis and outcome prediction. Results: The panel of two miRNAs showed outstanding diagnostic performance, with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.5%. Finally, we divided the PAAD patients into high-risk and low-risk groups based on the expression profile of the two miRNAs. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that patients in the high-risk group had significantly worse prognosis than patients in the low-risk group. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the two-miRNA signature was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of PAAD patients. Conclusion: Taken together, the two-miRNA signature may serve as an accurate and sensitive biomarker for diagnosis and PAAD-outcome prediction, facilitating the diagnosis and potentially improving treatment outcome of PAAD. Keywords: pancreatic adenocarcinoma, microRNA signature, TCGA, prognosis, diagnosis
Yanhua Yu,1 Fang Yu,1 Pijiang Sun2 1Department of Dermatology, Weihai Central Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, Weihai 264400, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Hepatobiliary and Abdominal Hernias Surgery, Weihai Central Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, Weihai 264400, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Pijiang SunDepartment of Hepatobiliary and Abdominal Hernias Surgery, Weihai Central Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, No. 3 Mishandong Road, Wendeng District, Weihai 264400, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 152 6441 0981Email email@example.comIntroduction: Recently, the incidence of melanoma has been rising and there is a lack of effective targeted therapies. The regulatory mechanisms of microRNA-1246 (miR-1246) have been found in many cancers, except melanoma. This study focused on the regulatory mechanism of miR-1246 in melanoma development.Methods: The expression of miR-1246 was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell viability and metastasis were detected by Transwell and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays. The protein expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) makers was assessed by Western blot analysis. The target gene of miR-1246 was detected using luciferase reporter assay.Results: MiR-1246 expression was increased in melanoma tissues and cells. In addition, upregulation of miR-1246 promoted cell viability and metastasis in melanoma. Forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-1246. And FOXA2 expression was decreased in melanoma and was suppressed by miR-1246. Importantly, upregulation of FOXA2 restored the carcinogenesis of miR-1246 in melanoma.Conclusion: MiR-1246 promoted cell viability and metastasis in melanoma by inhibiting FOXA2 expression.Keywords: miR-1246, melanoma, cell viability, cell metastasis, FOXA2
Background: Synthetic biology approaches are promising new strategies for control of pest insects that transmit disease and cause agricultural damage. These strategies require characterised modular components that can direct appropriate expression of effector sequences, with components conserved across species being particularly useful. The goal of this study was to identify genes from which new potential components could be derived for manipulation of the male germline... Expand abstract
Anahtar Kelimeler :
ceratitis capitata, male germline, pest insect, synthetic biology, rna-seq, aedes aegypti
Surface modification with Pd is an effective way for improved activity in CO2 hydrogenation to methanol over commercial Cu-ZnO catalysts via a so-called hydrogen spillover mechanism. However, there still lacks a quantitative analysis of hydrogen spillover effect and the nature of active sites after Pd modification remains unclear. In this work, we prepared a series of Pd-doped Cu-ZnO catalysts (Pd-CZ-x) with tunable Pd loading by using a facile polyol reduction method for a deep study of the promotion effect of Pd. With the increase of Pd/Cu molar ratio (x) from 0 to 0.04, there emerges a volcano-shaped relationship between methanol space time yield (STY) and Pd loading. 1% Pd doping can increase the methanol STY by 2.5 times and the methanol turnover frequency (TOF) by 3.5 times at 543 K, when compared to undoped Cu-ZnO. Kinetic studies show the activation energy required for methanol synthesis is greatly reduced from 59 kJ mol-1 over Cu-ZnO to 31 kJ mol-1 over Pd-CZ-0.01. Behind the volcano-shaped relationship is a balance between the hydrogen spillover effect of Pd and the reduced surface Cu area caused by Pd blocking. Chemisorption gives a quantitative analysis of the reducible Cu sites (Cured.) enabled by hydrogen spillover. Importantly, it is found that the methanol STY correlates linearly with Cured. surface area, suggesting that the activated Cu sites enabled by hydrogen spillover are real active sites for methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
pd doped cuzn catalysts, co2 hydrogenation, hydrogen spillover, active sites, reducible cu
The main purpose of this study was to ascertain the reduction behavior of tin phase (SnO2) in tin-bearing iron concentrates at the respective temperature of 1273 and 1373 K in diverse CO-CO2 mixed gases using chemical analysis, XRD, and SEMEDS analysis. The results show that the reduction behavior of SnO2 depends on the roasting temperature and CO content. At 1273 K, the SnO2 will be reduced to Sn (l) with the CO content being higher than 17.26 vol%, and there is no formation of SnO(s). With the temperature increased to 1373 K, the SnO2 is reduced stepwise in the order to form SnO2 → SnO (l) → Sn(l) with CO content over 15.75 vol%. The kinetic study shows that activation energy of the reaction SnO2(s)+CO(g)=Sn(l)+ CO2(g) is 144.75 kJ/mol at 1073-1223 K, being far lower than the one in the reduction of SnO2(s) into SnO(g) at 1273-1323 K, which leads to a conclusion that the tin in tin-bearing iron concentrates could be removed effectively after the Sn(l) sulfurated into SnS at relatively lower temperatures (1073-1223 K) using the sulfidation roasting method.
Conducting surveys on the status quo of sea area resources, figuring out the basic information about endowment of sea area resources, constructing an accounting standard system for sea area resource assets - value and establishing a physical account and a value account for sea area resource reserve are the foundation for sea area price evaluation and necessary conditions for the perfection of natural resource asset property rights system. This paper analyzes the survey on the status quo of sea area resources in China and the status quo of resource account and value account, brings up a problem that surveys and accountings of sea area resources cannot meet the management requirements of paid utilization of sea area and offers specific suggestions such as carrying out surveys on the space resources of sea area, evaluating the value of resources.
DOI : 10.1051/e3sconf/20199301001
ISSN: 2267-1242 Cilt: 93 Sayfa: 01001
Qingfeng Jiang, Wenqun Xing, Jinhua Cheng, Yongkui Yu Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Wenqun XingDepartment of Thoracic Surgery, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, No. 127, Dongming Road, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86- 371-5588265Email firstname.lastname@example.orgBackground: Long noncoding RNA X inactivate-specific transcript (lncRNA XIST) has been identified to contribute to the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thus, it is important to explore more specific functions and molecular mechanisms of XIST in NSCLC tumorigenesis.Materials and Methods: The expression of XIST, microRNA (miR)-142-5p and paired box 6 (PAX6) was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or Western blot, respectively. Cell proliferation was analyzed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Flow cytometry was utilized to measure apoptotic cells. Cell migration and invasion were determined by Transwell assay. The interaction between miR-142-5p and XIST or PAX6 was confirmed by the dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay. In vivo experiments were performed through the murine xenograft model.Results: XIST was elevated in NSCLC, and XIST knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and induced apoptosis in vitro as well as repressed tumor growth in vivo. MiR-142-5p was a target of XIST, and silencing miR-142-5p reversed the anti-tumor functions mediated by XIST knockdown in NSCLC cells. PAX6 was confirmed to be a target of miR-142-5p, and the inhibitory effects caused by miR-142-5p restoration in NSCLC cell malignant phenotypes were attenuated by PAX6 overexpression. Besides that, XIST could indirectly regulate PAX6 expression by sponging miR-142-5p in vivo and in vitro.Conclusion: XIST suppresses cell tumorigenicity in human NSCLC by regulating miR-142-5p/PAX6 axis, which indicates a novel insight into the pathogenesis of NSCLC and lays a foundation for the molecular therapy of NSCLC.Keywords: XIST, miR-142-5p, PAX6, NSCLC
Yi-Jie Zhang,1,2 Qi Pan,1,2 Yang Yu,1,2 Xin-Ping Zhong1,2 1Department of Hepatobiliary and Organ Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, People’s Republic of China; 2The Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Liaoning Province, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Xin-Ping ZhongDepartment of Hepatobiliary and Organ Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No. 155, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13309831481Email email@example.comBackground and Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of cancer with high mortality rates. The overexpression of microRNA-519d (miR-519d) has been explored in different types of cancers, which could significantly help suppress cancer development. This study aimed to investigate the interaction of miR-519d with its target gene, Rab10, as well as its effects on cell proliferation and autophagy in HCC cells through modulation of the AMPK signaling pathway.Methods: Microarray analysis was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes in HCC, and the target genes of the screened-out miRNA were predicted and verified. The expression of miR-519d and Rab10, AMPK signaling pathway-related proteins, apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins was determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis in HCC tissues and cell lines. Lastly, the effects of miR-519d and Rab10 in HCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mouse tumour xenograft in vivo were examined through gain- and loss-of-function experiments.Results: MiR-519d was down-regulated and Rab10 was upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-519d decreased the expression of Rab10, mTOR, and Bcl-2, but increased the expression of Bax, Beclin1, Atg5, and p53. Upregulated miR-519d and downregulated Rab10 expression suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis and autophagy in HCC cells. Finally, upregulation of miR-519d inhibited tumour growth in vivo.Conclusion: The result obtained in this study indicates that up-regulation of miR-519d inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis and autophagy of HCC cells through activation of the AMPK signaling pathway via downregulating Rab10, which provides a potential target for the treatment of HCC.Keywords: microRNA-519, Rab10, Adenosine 5ʹ-monophosphate-activated protein signaling pathway, hepatocellular carcinoma, proliferation, autophagy
Yi Bao,1,2 Jiayuan Wu,1 Jun Zhang,3 Yawei Yu41The Key Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 2The Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3The Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4The Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The incidence of synchronous multiple primary lung cancer (SMPLC) has been increased in recent years. Because of a variance in clinical management and outcome, it is important to distinguish SMPLC from a primary tumor with intrapulmonary metastases. Here, we reported a diagnosis and treatment procedure regarding a case of a 58‐year‐old woman who presented with synchronous multiple tumor lesions in separate lungs. Using a next generation sequencing technology, a discordant EGFR gene profile from the separate lungs was revealed for this patient. After standard treatment procedures, the therapeutic effects were evaluated by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). This case shows an essential role in the combination of molecular features, together with pathological analysis, during the management of SMPLC, but challenges still required considering during dealing the cases of SMPLC.Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma, SMPLC, genetic features, EGFR
Chunle Zhang,1 Yang Yu,2 Liang Ma,1 Ping Fu1,2 1Kidney Research Laboratory, Division of Nephrology and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Ping FuDepartment of Nephrology, Kidney Research Laboratory, Division of Nephrology and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/ Fax +86-028-85422286Email firstname.lastname@example.orgBackground: The histamine H3 receptor (HRH3) is mainly expressed in areas of the brain involved in the regulation of the release of various neurotransmitters. Recent studies have shown that HRH3 expression is increased in several types of carcinomas. However, the functional roles and underlying molecular mechanism by which HRH3 regulates cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown.Methods: The mRNA and protein expression level of target genes were evaluated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Cell viability and cell proliferation activity were assessed by MTS assay and EdU incorporation assay. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometry analysis. A xenograft mouse model was constructed to investigate the effect of HRH3 on tumor growth in vivo.Results: Our results indicated that HRH3 was significantly upregulated in HCC, which promoted cell survival by accelerating cell proliferation and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Our results also showed that HRH3 in HCC downregulated the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) to promote G1-S phase transition by inactivating the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway, which finally contributed to the malignant growth of HCC.Conclusion: Our findings indicated that HRH3 functioned in promoting HCC survival by inactivating the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway to downregulate CDKN1A expression. Thus, HRH3 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC treatment.Keywords: HRH3, CDKN1A, cell survival, hepatocellular carcinoma