Yes / Platinum complexes are the most widely used anticancer drugs; however, new generations of agents are needed. The organoiridium(III) complex [(η5-Cpxbiph)Ir(phpy)(Cl)] (1-Cl), which contains π-bonded biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl (Cpxbiph) and C^N-chelated phenylpyridine (phpy) ligands, undergoes rapid hydrolysis of the chlorido ligand. In contrast, the pyridine complex [(η5-Cpxbiph)Ir(phpy)(py)]+ (1-py) aquates slowly, and is more potent (in nanomolar amounts) than both 1-Cl and cisplatin towards a wide range of cancer cells. The pyridine ligand protects 1-py from rapid reaction with intracellular glutathione. The high potency of 1-py correlates with its ability to increase substantially the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells. The unprecedented ability of these iridium complexes to generate H2O2 by catalytic hydride transfer from the coenzyme NADH to oxygen is demonstrated. Such organoiridium complexes are promising as a new generation of anticancer drugs for effective oxidant therapy. / We thank the ERC (247450), SNSF (PA00P2_145308 for N.P.E.B.), IAS (for I.R.C.), BBSRC (for J.M.H.), Science City (AWM and ERDF), and the EPSRC for support, and Prof. Timothy Bugg and members of EC COST Action CM1105 for stimulating discussions. We also thank Professor Pat Unwin, Mike Snowden, and Rob Lazenby for their help with the electrochemical experiments and the National Cancer Institute for NCI-60 human tumor cell panel screening.
The fusion of measurements from distributed sensors for dynamic positioning (DP) system based on state estimation algorithms is studied in this thesis in order to increase the accuracy and redundancy of the reference system in DP and a state observer is also designed to estimate of the low frequency vessel motion for the input of DP controller. Different filters such as lowpass filter, notch filter, Kalman filter (KF), extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and square-root unscented Kalman filter (SRUKF) are introduced and discussed in this thesis. The square-root unscented Kalman filter is proposed for the fusion of measurements, wave filtering and state estimation based on kinematics while the Kalman filter is used as an observer for the estimation of the state vector of a vessel mathematical model for dynamic positioning operation. Thereafter a Matlab/Simulink based marine system simulator containing external environment, vessel model, reference sensors, sensor fusion system, observer and controller is built to test the algorithms of sensor fusion and observer designed in this thesis. The results of the simulation show that the errors of low frequency position and heading prediction are below 0.2m and 0.3 degree respectively which is accurate enough for DP operation. The dead reckoning starts automatically as soon as the reference system fails and the error of the dead reckoning increases gradually overtime. The position error in dead reckoning is about 5m after 1800s in simulation, which means the DP system is still able to estimate the position of the vessel without any position measurements in certain time, avoiding collision caused by the sudden position loss.
The issue of Chinese cultural relics ‘lost’ in modern Chinese history is the main concern in this study. Following an introductory chapter, I identify some specific cases of the loss of Chinese cultural relics and explore the legal regime on the protection of cultural heritage. The case studies are designed to assess the possibility of seeking legal remedies of restitution under the contemporary legal regime. After the legal analysis, I examine the cultural and ethical issues underpinning the international conventions protecting cultural heritage, and the claims seeking for the return of cultural heritage. Related issues, including cultural identity, right to cultural heritage, multiculturalism, the politics of recognition, human rights, cosmopolitanism, are discussed. In the concluding chapter, I come to answer the research questions and put forward some suggestions for future research.
ObjectiveEXPO 2010 Shanghai China attracted about 246 nations and international organizations as well as 73 million visitors from home and abroad. To provide good medical services to is a challenge.MethodsEight Level A hospitals are designated as EXPO Hospitals to provide advanced medical services to those who need critical care. There are five first aid stations in the EXPO park to provide first aid to EXPO visitors and staff. First aid at scene and emergency response are the emphasis. Practical, realistic, and systematic and forewarning emergency plans are made. An agile and efficient structure is organized. All EXPO staff members underwent first aid training, especially the CPR training and the use of AED. The public are trained for self rescue skills via different approaches and provided with first-aid kits. A medical rescue team is recruited; the team consists of Critical Care physicians, surgeons, anesthetists and nurses. The team is able to deal with different situations under all conditions. The team is a standing army, after the EXPO, the team will be responsible for providing medical services in the regional disaster rescue. Drills are performed periodically to practice the rescue skills, enhance the communication and cooperation among different government departments.ResultsBy joint efforts, a safe, wonderful and unforgettable EXPO was presented to the world. During the 184 days, medical personnel provided medical services to the 73 million visitors.ConclusionsThe medical preparedness for World EXPO should be practical, realistic, and systematic and forewarning. The public should have the easy access to the information and resources. Develop the contingency plans according to the real situation, ensure its timely updating and deliver training to every one involved. Drills should be performed periodically to practice the rescue skills, enhance the communication and cooperation among different government departments.
Converging evidence in object recognition has shown that the performance of human observers depends on their familiarity with the appearance of the objects. The degree of this dependence is a function of the inter-object similarity in the object set. The more similar the objects are, the stronger is this dependence, and the more dominant is two-dimensional (2-D) image information. However, the extent to which 3-D structural information is used still remains an area of strong debate. Previously, we showed that all models that allowed 2-D rotations in the image plane of independent 2-D templates were unable to account for human performance in recognising novel object views. Here we derive a closed-form Bayesian ideal observer that gives rise to probably the best possible performance when applying 2-D affine transformations (translation, rotation, scaling, stretching, and other linear transformations) to stored 2-D templates. In addition, we compare human performance with a closed-form derivation that finds the best match between a 2-D template and a 2-D image under 2-D affine transformations. We also compare human performance with a generalised radial basis functions model. This model establishes optimal performance for learned 2-D templates, and then adjusts the variance of its radial basis (Gaussian) functions to achieve best possible performance for novel views of individual objects. We demonstrate that none of these models can account for human performance in 3-D object recognition. Human statistical efficiency for novel views is higher than for learned views, which suggests that 3-D structural information is used by human observers.
When two image regions are separated by an occluder, the strength of their perceptual grouping behind the occluder depends in part on the possible smoothness of the hidden contour completions (ie, Gestalt ‘good continuation’). We consider if grouping strength also depends on whether the contour completion is convex or concave. We hypothesised that the stronger the grouping between two such regions, the harder it is to resolve their relative stereoscopic depth; and employed accordingly an objective method of relative depth discrimination. The stimulus was in stereo. A horizontal bar in the centre of the image occluded two pairs of planar regions parallel with the image plane. One pair assumed a convex (oval) shape behind the occluder, the other pair a concave (hourglass) shape. The regions in one pair had a slight depth difference. The task was to detect which pair was not coplanar. The convex grouping impeded detection of stereoscopic relative depth (73% vs 86%, F1,10=8.66, p < 0.02). This held even when the convex completion boundaries were less smooth than the concave ones, a result opposite to predictions by Gestalt ‘good continuation’. In a control experiment, the stimulus was viewed with the ‘occluder’ in the background, so grouping was no longer possible. No difference between the two pairs was found. Our results suggest that convexity, known to play a role in figure/ground segmentation, is also significant in perceptual grouping, and can even win out over ‘good continuation’. We also propose an objective method of depth discrimination to study perceptual grouping in general.