A 23-year-old man with a viral-like prodrome developed sudden severe dyspnea and was found to have renal failure, anemia, shock, and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring emergent endotracheal intubation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Travel and exposure history from peripheral sources revealed that the patient had participated in a ‘mud-run’ in Hawaii two weeks prior to symptom onset. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with leptospirosis and treated with ceftriaxone and doxycycline. He was discharged on hospital day 13 with full recovery. Leptospirosis is associated with exposure to water, soil, or other matter contaminated with urine of carrier animals. It has been associated with a multitude of activities over time; most recently recreational water-based activities including ‘mud-runs’ in endemic areas have been added to the list of routes of exposure. This case underscores the importance of obtaining a thorough epidemiological exposure and travel history and being aware of areas of endemicity for life-threatening infections. Additionally, to our knowledge this is the second case of a patient in the United States treated with ECMO for leptospirosis induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Keywords: Leptospira interrogans, Leptospirosis, Leptospirosis pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome, Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation, Mud-run
Tetanus is a potentially fatal disease of the nervous system arising from toxins produced by Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic bacterium found in soil . Characterized by muscular rigidity, spasms and autonomic dysregulation its identification and, importantly, its prevention remain critical to the welfare of at risk patients. We present the case of a twenty two year old woman who presented to hospital with trismus and generalized muscle spasms three days following a dog bite to the right hand. Here, we discuss the presentation of generalized tetanus and the use of neurophysiology to facilitate its diagnosis. Keywords: Tetanus, Neurophysiology, Vaccines, EMG, Dog bite
Antiviral therapy against cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is indicated for symptomatic infection in the fetus and premature neonates. In mature neonates, the benefit of antiviral therapy for severe CMV infection remains controversial. Additionally, when diagnosing symptomatic CMV disease occurring during the early neonatal period, it is difficult to differentiate between congenital and acquired infections. We herein report a neonatal case of CMV infection complicated with severe thrombocytopenia that was successfully managed with antiviral treatment. A 21-day-old male infant presented with low-grade fever and erythema on his extremities. During outpatient follow-up, he developed petechiae and thrombocytopenia (platelet count 17,000/μL). Subsequent serological examination and molecular detection of CMV confirmed the diagnosis of CMV infection. In consideration of the severe thrombocytopenia, antiviral therapy with valganciclovir 32 mg/kg/day was initiated. The platelet counts increased with decreasing CMV loads. After excluding congenital CMV infection, we discontinued antiviral therapy without relapse of the disease. The present case suggests that neonatal cases of severe symptomatic CMV infection may require antiviral therapy while excluding the possibility of congenital infection. Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Thrombocytopenia, Neonate, Antiviral therapy
A patient with a prosthetic joint infection (PJI) complicated with deep surgical site infection due to vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis. The initial treatment consisted of 10 days with daptomycin plus ampicillin. The hip prosthesis was retained and salvaged with six outpatient sequential doses of oritavancin 1200 mg every seven days without intra-articular irrigation or other surgical interventions. The patient was ambulating independently without symptoms after ten months of the last treatment of oritavancin.
“Cotton fever” is described as a self-limiting illness following “cotton shooting,” the practice of injecting residual drugs extracted from previously used cotton filters. Cases of related Enterobacter agglomerans bacteremia have been described. We report the first described case of cotton fever in a patient resulting in Enterobacter asburiae endocarditis. Keywords: Cotton fever, Bacteremia, Enterobacter, Endocarditis, Injection drug use, Withdrawal
Aspergillus niger is one of more than 340 different species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis can present with a wide range of clinical syndromes, and it results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here we described a rare case of the left central tympanic membrane perforation secondary to Aspergillus niger otomycosis. The patient underwent tympanoplasty with good improvement.
We describe a case of Campylobacter fetus bacteremia with endovascular involvement in an immunocompetent female patient. The patient was treated with high dose ciprofloxacin as an outpatient and recovered well. Keywords: Campylobacter, Endovascular infection, Infection, Ciprofloxacin
The development of immune system modulating agents, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has revolutionized cancer treatment. Nivolumab, a human monoclonal antibody against PD-1, has emerged as an efficient treatment for various malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, it is associated with important immune related side-effects, attributed to organ-specific inflammation, such as immune-mediated pneumonitis, a relatively uncommon, albeit potentially fatal adverse event. We herein present the unique case of severe interstitial pneumonitis with concomitant detection of Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) in a nivolumab treated patient with NSCLC. Potential pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed.
DOI : 10.1016/j.idcr.2018.01.013 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Human Herpesvirus 6, Nivolumab, Immunotherapy, Lung cancer
ISSN: 2214-2509 Cilt: 11 Sayı: C Sayfa: 101 - 103
Bartonella quintana is a relatively rare cause of endocarditis in the United States (USA). Historically it was linked with trench fever, but cardiac involvement seems to be more prevalent recently. There are some known risk factors associated with Bartonella quintana endocarditis such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, alcoholism, homelessness and poor hygiene. We report a case of 37-year-old African man, with culture negative endocarditis, emboli and rising B. quintana and B. henselae IgG titers. B. quintana DNA was subsequently detected from the mitral valve sample with 16S rRNA gene and ribC primer sets. Eventually, blood culture for B. quintana was positive after 21 days. Patient was successfully treated with doxycycline and gentamicin. There have been a few cases of B. quintana endocarditis in the USA and most of them were associated with HIV infection, homelessness or alcoholism. The case reported here highlights the importance of high clinical suspicious for Bartonella species in blood culture negative endocarditis in the USA in appropriate setting and will help to increase awareness among physicians for early diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: Endocarditis, Bartonella, Quintana
Brevibacterium massiliense infection in man is rare. We report here the second case with isolation of B. massiliense in human. This micro-organism requires specific laboratory investigations such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing for accurate species identification. The clinical outcome was favorable.
DOI : 10.1016/j.idcr.2016.11.010 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Bacteremia, Brevibacterium sp.
ISSN: 2214-2509 Cilt: 7 Sayı: C Sayfa: 25 - 26
The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is a mediator of broad antimicrobial resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative pathogens that cause opportunistic and nosocomial infections. In the decade since its discovery, NDM has spread worldwide and represents an increasing threat to public health. NDM is capable of hydrolyzing nearly all known β-lactam antibiotics, including the carbapenems, and due to its zinc ion-dependent catalytic mechanism is unaffected by available β-lactamase inhibitors. We report a case of catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by a pan-resistant, NDM-positive isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in an ambulatory end-stage renal disease patient started on hemodialysis approximately 8 weeks prior. The absence of any recent hospitalization indicates that the infection was likely acquired from a hemodialysis center in the United States. This case demonstrates the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in ambulatory as well as inpatient healthcare settings, and highlights the particular risk of the outpatient hemodialysis facility as an optimal environment for colonization with multidrug- and pandrug-resistant pathogens.
Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present.
Disseminated tuberculosis is an important differential diagnosis for fever of unknown origin (FUO) and it can present with hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy and may have meningitis and with hematological abnormalities including pancytopenia or a leukemoid reaction. We report the case of a 13-year old male who presented with fever, weight loss, pallor and massive splenomegaly with pancytopenia, in whom a bone marrow trephine biopsy showed caseating granulomata, who responded well to antituberculous treatment and has remained healthy on follow up after nine years.
A 39-yerar-old man was admitted to our hospital with behavioral disturbances and generalized headaches. He was diagnosed with CNS toxoplasmosis after performing a brain biopsy. He found to be HIV positive with a CD4 of 14/uL He was started on ant toxoplasmosis along with antiretroviral therapy. He presented 6 weeks after discharge with worsening headache thought to be related to relapse of toxoplasmosis. However, he found to have severe anemia related to CMV-induced gastrointestinal bleeding. He was started on anti-cytomegalovirus drugs and has finally achieved significant improvement.
DOI : 10.1016/j.idcr.2017.05.003
ISSN: 2214-2509 Cilt: 9 Sayı: C Sayfa: 59 - 61
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is the major cause of healthcare antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. However, extra-intestinal manifestations of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) (including bacteremia and tissue infection) are extremely rare. We report a case of extraintestinal CDI after surgery. The isolate of C. difficile was not the PCR ribotype 027. However, this isolate produced toxins A and B. The patient underwent a follow-up examination 30 days after discharge, which showed complete recovery. This case report adds to existing knowledge of CDI.
A 79-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy for cervical cancer with ureterocutaneostomy presented with high fever. She had tenderness and a hard lump around the ureterocutaneostomy site. Computed tomography scan revealed 1.5 cm ureteral calculus in ureterocutaneous fistula (Fig. 1A) associated with bilateral hydronephrosis (Fig. 1B) and we performed a transureteral stent insertion. Blood culture grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Veillonella species and Bacteroides fragilis and urine culture revealed Escherichia coli, MSSA, and Enterococcus faecalis. The patient’s clinical signs and symptoms gradually improved with ampicillin/sulbactam. Patients with urinary diversions including ureterocutaneostomy and iliac conduits are at increased risk of urolithiasis (1), which can cause sepsis, pyelonephritis, and renal insufficiency (2). Since most patients become colonized with a multitude of bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae and skin flora such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp., we should empirically treat with broad-spectrum antimicrobials until the culture results are available. Early diagnosis and urological intervention are required because it can be life-threatening with delayed treatment. Keywords: Ureterocutaneostomy, Obstructive urinary tract infection, Urolithiasis
Candida mediastinitis is a rare complication of open heart surgery with high mortality and morbidity usually associated with C. albicans. We are reporting the case of a 57 year old male who after having a triple coronary artery bypass graft procedure, had mediastinitis caused by Candida famata, a yeast, that had only been reported once before as the causal agent of this condition. It is of vital importance, that future cases be reported, due to the fact that both reported cases have led to patient demise.
DOI : 10.1016/j.idcr.2016.07.001
ISSN: 2214-2509 Cilt: 5 Sayı: C Sayfa: 37 - 39
65 year-old-male presented with a one-week history of high grade fever, fatigue and confusion which began abruptly two days after a cystoscopy procedure. Past medical history included pulmonary sarcoidosis diagnosed by mediastinal lymph biopsy, diabetes and hypertension. On admission he was febrile and confused with stable vital signs. Initial workup included negative Head CT and lumbar puncture. Blood work revealed normal metabolic and liver function tests with progressive anemia, thrombocytopenia and atypical lymphocytosis of 15–20%. Blood, urine and respiratory cultures all were negative for bacteria and. A bone marrow biopsy was done given the abnormal lymphocytes in peripheral smear, revealing budding yeast consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma antigen was positive in urine and eventually blood and bone marrow grew H. capsulatum. Patient was started on amphotericin-B for diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis. After a 2 week period of amphotericin B, patient was switched to oral Itraconazole to complete 12 months course of treatment.
The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 poses an unprecedented global health challenge. With its variety of clinical manifestations including, but not limited to, fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, myalgia and fatigue, it may be challenging to distinguish COVID-19 from a spectrum of diseases with similar presentations, such as malaria, especially in endemic areas. Risk of concomitant infections also remains a concern owing to overburdening of healthcare services and possible scarcity of resources. We present the first reported case of confirmed COVID and malaria co-infection. In this case, we emphasize the need for vigilance from frontline clinicians for timely diagnosis and appropriate clinical management of potential co-infections in the COVID era.
Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, which is saprophyte of contaminated soil. In the immunocompetent host, the symptoms of histoplasmosis tend to be mild or even non-existent. In immunocompromised patients, the manifestations may be more severe and the disease manifests itself in a disseminated form, with high mortality rates. Isolated mucosal lesions are infrequent and the purpose of this report is to describe an unusual case of nasal septum ulcer as an isolated clinical manifestation of the disease. Keywords: Histoplasmosis, Nasal septum ulcer, Immunocompromised host
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract appears to be a common port of entry for MAC infection in patients with AIDS. Early recognition of GI MAC infection by endoscopy in HIV-infected patients and initiation of anti-MAC therapy and ART may reduce morbidity and mortality.
We present a unique and informative instance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), and discuss this case in the context of the literature addressing the immunopathogenesis of APS associated with diverse infections. We describe the case of a 43-year-old man with no significant past medical history who presented with the acute onset of fever, hemoptysis, and extensive bullous, ecchymotic lesions in both lower extremities. Punch biopsy of the lesion demonstrated thrombotic vasculopathy. Further evaluation revealed serum antiphospholipid antibodies as well as a positive RSV PCR in a nasal swab specimen. Clinical manifestations, positive laboratory and pathological findings were strongly suggestive of APS associated with a recent RSV infection. When an infectious etiology is considered for APS, RSV should also be included in the differential diagnosis.
A 54 year old female presented to the ophthalmology clinic with pain and decreased vision in her left eye. No past medical history other than primary varicella zoster infection, in her childhood. The eye exam revealed a macular region with scattered areas of retinal opacity along with patches of necrosis on the periphery. She was started on valganciclovir and referred to the infectious disease clinic. Cell Count, blood chemistry and HIV were negative. Serum was sent for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). The VZV PCR was positive. She had decreased vision on the right eye two days later, and exam revealed peripheral retinal whitening. She was admitted and started on intravenous acyclovir. VZV is one of the most common causes of ARN and has been described in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons.Visual changes are usually noted weeks to months after the antecedent herpes zoster. Retinal involvement is bilateral in over half of cases, suggesting that VZV reaches the central nervous system hematogenously. The retinal exam reveals multifocal necrotizing lesions, often initially involving the peripheral retina. Therapy includes intravenous acyclovir with consideration of intravitreal foscarnet and other antivirals for progressing disease. Keywords: Retinal necrosis, Acute, Progressive, Varicella Zoster
A 40-year-old Japanese man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) on the basis of the results of skin lesion biopsies. In addition, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography–computed tomography revealed abnormal fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in KS lesions, whereas gallium-67 scintigraphy did not show uptake of gallium. These findings indicate that combining these imaging modalities can help distinguish KS from other malignancies and opportunistic infections.
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium. Viruses, such as enterovirus, adenovirus, parvovirus B19, HHV6 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) and autoimmune diseases are recognized causes of myocarditis. We describe the clinical case of a young Indian woman with SLE and a concomitant acute CMV related myocarditis with favourable outcome after ganciclovir therapy.CMV myocarditis may range from being a subclinical infection with incidental findings on ECG to a life threating presentation. There are no trials demonstrating the efficacy of antiviral therapy in myocarditis. Case series of patients with CMV myocarditis have reported an excellent clinical outcome after antiviral agents. Lupus Myocarditis (LM) is more prevalent in young females. There are no specific ECG or echocardiographic signs. Treatment strategies of LM are based on corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents and cardiovascular support, usually with a favorable prognosis, but LM often lead to a severe clinical picture, with mortality of 10.3%. Endomyocardial biopsy (EBM) is recommended as the gold standard but it is very underused in clinical practice, It should be performed in a specialized center but there are concerns on lack of specificity, low negative predictive value, risk of complication, and sampling errors due to the focal nature of myocarditis. Both SLE and CMV are potentially responsible of acute myocarditis. In our knowledge, CMV myocarditis with SLE was described in only one other patient. The initiation of antiviral therapy improved the clinical picture and, in our opinion, it is mandatory when CMV related life threating conditions develop. Keywords: Myocarditis, Cytomegalovirus, Systemic lupus erythematosus
Lyme disease may present with a variety of cardiac manifestations ranging from first degree to third degree heart block. Cardiac involvement with Lyme disease may be asymptomatic, or symptomatic. Atrioventrical conduction abnormalities are the most common manifestation of Lyme carditis. Less common, are alternating right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left bundle branch block (LBBB). We present an interesting case of a young male whose main manifestation of Lyme carditis was isolated LBBB. He also had mild Lyme myocarditis. The patient was successfully treated with oral doxycycline, and his isolated LBBB and myocarditis rapidly resolved.
DOI : 10.1016/j.idcr.2017.12.006 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Tick borne infections, B burgoderferi, Ixodes ticks, Lyme disease with heart block, Conduction abnormalities, Lyme myocarditis
ISSN: 2214-2509 Cilt: 11 Sayı: C Sayfa: 48 - 50
Incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections has increased during the past decades. Disseminated infections are relatively rare and associated with immunocompromised status. We report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium szulgai infection of cervical lymphadenitis and pulmonary involvement with positive anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies. The patient was successfully treated with rifampin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin. The case reports and series through search engines of Pubmed and Google with the keyword of disseminated infection of M. szulgai were reviewed. Fifteen patients of disseminated M. szulgai infection were reviewed and included. Disseminated M. szulgai infection involves bone, skin and lymph node more common instead of pulmonary involvement, and most are associated with immunocompromised status with neoplastic hematologic disorders. In patients with disseminated M. szulgai infection, long term anti-mycobacterial agents are necessary. Most patients will respond to rifampin and ethambutol combination regimens.
Botulism is an acute toxin-mediated neuroparalytic syndrome caused by some Clostridium species. It typically presents itself as an acute symmetric descending paralysis of cranial and peripheral nerves, which can potentially evolve to respiratory failure and death. We report a case of botulism diagnosed in a patient presenting with a parotitis probably due to xerostomia, even though he had already sought medical assistance for blurred vision and dysphagia. The neurological symptoms resolved without administration of antitoxin and botulism diagnosis was confirmed with identification of both toxins B and F in patient’s serum. We aim to illustrate the need for a high clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of botulism and to report an atypical case of botulism with the production of toxins B and F, the latter being of rare occurrence.
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by low platelet count that has been associated with a number of chronic infections but rarely described as a manifestation of Whipple’s disease (WD). We present a case of Whipple’s disease in a patient initially diagnosed with ITP.A 46-year old male in the fifth decade of life presented with presumed idiopathic ITP and was treated with several therapies including corticosteroids, rituximab, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists. Several years later, he developed weight loss and worsening arthralgias. He was found to have evidence of WD in a jejunal lymph node, the duodenum, and the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). His diagnosis of WD, as a cause of secondary ITP, came a full 8 years after he was discovered to have thrombocytopenia and over 4 years after he was diagnosed with ITP.WD is an uncommon, multiorgan system disease caused by the actinomycete Tropheryma whipplei. Whipple’s disease presents a diagnostic challenge due to the wide array of possible presenting clinical manifestations, as well as a prolonged time course with separation of symptoms over many years. While T. whipplei is ubiquitous in the environment, few individuals develop clinical disease, raising the prospect that select immunodeficiencies, both singular or in combination, may play a role in infection.While rare, in the appropriate clinical setting, one should consider infection with T. whipplei in addition to other chronic infections as a cause of secondary ITP regardless of how long ago the diagnosis of ITP was made. Keywords: Whipple’s, Thrombocytopenia, ITP