This research explores to what extent a mother‐tongue educational programme can reinvigorate Taiwan's ethnic cultural identity. Content of mother‐tongue teaching materials used in Taipei county for Taiwanese, Hakka and Ataylic students is analysed, on the basis of the categories established by Bos (1987). Interviews with members from each ethnic group are also conducted as a supplement. Results show that it is mainstream cultural values rather than ethnic cultural elements that predominate in the mother‐tongue textbooks. This indicates that people in Taiwan are enculturated to a mainstream Chinese culture and consequently become unaware of traditional values held by the other ethnic groups. In order to help members of ethnic groups embrace their original cultural values, future mother‐tongue teaching materials should strive to specifically emphasise the uniqueness of the cultural values held by each group
Positioned against the background of the Council of Europe's interest in developing intercultural competence through education, the study presented in this paper investigates the impact on intercultural visual literacy of the Council of Europe's Images of Others An Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through Visual Media (AIEVM). In our study, the AIEVM was used within the context of an online intercultural exchange between pre-service language teachers. Findings indicate increased intercultural awareness as students at universities in Germany and Spain engaged with the visually ‘mediated other’ through working systematically with the AIEVM. Multiperspectivity and critical cultural awareness in particular were shown to be enhanced through discussing ‘images of others’ in culturally diverse tandem teams.
This article investigates school leader perspectives on Content and Integrated Learning (CLIL) based on findings from an empirical research study undertaken in three state secondary schools in England, to investigate (CLIL). The article argues the importance of the role of senior leaders in developing and sustaining CLIL initiatives. Perspectives about CLIL from 12 leaders are presented using semi-structured interviews from three schools where different models of CLIL are practised: headteachers, senior leaders responsible for the school oversight of such programmes and curriculum leaders responsible for developing the work in specific subjects. This article offers a unique contribution to the field by its focus on school leaders’ perceptions of and commitment to CLIL from their involvement in contrasting CLIL contexts in the self-improving school context of England. There are no existing studies that focus on senior leaders’ perspectives in the secondary sector. In spite of numerous limitations presented by the current national policy landscape, the findings reveal that school leaders perceive CLIL to make a potentially strong contribution to the pressing school improvement agenda through the acceleration of learner progress characterised by high levels of pupil concentration, effort, enjoyment and progress.
DOI : 10.1080/07908318.2019.1667367 Anahtar Kelimeler :
CLIL, school leaders, school improvement, motivation, innovation
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 4 Cilt: 33 Sayfa: 351-367
Language anxiety is a part of general kinds of situational anxieties related to oral expression and interpersonal communication known as 'communication apprehensions'. This research examined the influence of language anxiety as measured by a special version of the FLCAS questionnaire, an accepted questionnaire in foreign-language research, on achievements in English writing and reading comprehension tasks. Subjects were 68 students aged 12–13, with Hebrew as their mother tongue, who learned English as a foreign language at school. The research hypothesised a significant relationship between language anxiety and writing ability, but not between language anxiety and reading comprehension, because writing is classified as a communication skill and reading is not. Contrary to the research hypothesis, significant relationships were found between language anxiety and both reading and writing skills. This raises the possibility, suggested also in other studies, that language anxiety is not a cause of failure in learning the foreign language but a consequence. Perhaps wider research is needed, including the examination of diverse variables such as mother-tongue abilities, general cognitive abilities, and language anxiety, to reach more definite conclusions on the factors that influence failure in foreign-language learning. Such conclusions might require a reconsideration of the methods used in foreign-language teaching.
This study investigated the influence of cultural bias in the teaching of English and in the books used to teach English in primary schools attended by Khoe students in eastern Botswana. The study also explored the link between cultural bias and the attitudes and motivation of Khoe students learning English. One hundred and thirty-seven students completed an attitude and motivation questionnaire adapted from Gardner's (1985) Gardner, R. C. 1985. Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation, London: Edward Arnold. [Google Scholar] Attitude and Motivation Test Battery. In addition, five of the students and 12 teachers were interviewed to obtain their opinion on cultural bias in English textbooks. English language textbooks for Standards 4–7 were analysed for culture bias, using Ndura's (2004) Ndura, E. 2004. ESL and cultural bias: An analysis of elementary through high school textbooks in Western United States of America. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 17(2): 143–153. [Taylor & Francis Online] , [Google Scholar] investigation of such materials for invisibility, unreliability and stereotyping of learner cultures. The findings show that English language books are not culturally diverse, but this does not affect the attitude and motivation of the students to learn English. The study recommends that English books be reviewed to make them culturally inclusive, and teachers trained to adopt a multicultural attitude in their teaching of English.
DOI : 10.1080/07908310802538315 Anahtar Kelimeler :
cultural bias, attitude, motivation, teaching, learning
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 1 Cilt: 22 Sayfa: 1-13
This study explores factors related to the language learning strategies of second language learners, specifically Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students the seventh-largest and one of the fastest growing foreign-born groups in the USA. Participants in this study were members of the Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia who completed a self-report instrument (English as a second language/English as a foreign language strategy inventory for language learning (SILL)) that assesses language learning strategies. Since there is currently no consensus regarding how many factors the SILL adequately measures, the data were examined with an exploratory factor analysis technique. Results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that a single SILL factor best describes the instrument, as the proposed six sub-domain indices demonstrate tenuous construct validity.
DOI : 10.1080/07908318.2012.706302 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Generation 1.5, Korean immigrant college students, language learning, second language, strategy inventory for language learning, factor analysis
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 3 Cilt: 25 Sayfa: 231-247
The factors affecting the mastery of the host country's language by the children of immigrants are important in the study of immigration-related issues. This exploratory study analyses the possible link between parental socio-linguistic background factors (parent–child language choice, parental proficiency in L2, educational level, socio-economic status, and the length of residence in the host country) and the children's social milieu on the one hand and children's lexical knowledge of L2 on the other among Russian-Jewish immigrants to Israel. Participants in the study were 70 Russian–Hebrew speaking children with a mean age of 7 years 2 months and their parents, all Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. After investigating the factors that influence Hebrew (L2) vocabulary knowledge, we constructed a composite measure of Hebrew lexical knowledge. In addition, structured questionnaires for parents and children were developed to collect data on target socio-linguistic factors. The findings showed that variability in children's L2 lexical knowledge can be understood, to some extent, by three background factors: parents' educational level, parents' educational experience in the host country, and the length of family residence in the host country. At the same time, the role of parent–child language choice, parental L2 proficiency, and children's social milieu was found to be insignificant. These data are discussed in the context of the distinctive socio-cultural characteristics of the Russian-Jewish immigrant community in Israel.
DOI : 10.1080/07908310802504119 Anahtar Kelimeler :
lexical knowledge in L2, second-generation children of immigrants, Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel, parental educational level, language input, children's social milieu
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 1 Cilt: 22 Sayfa: 15-28
Following the results of the Ife Six-Year Primary Project designed to use an indigenous Nigerian language as a medium of instruction in primary schools, some suggestions have been made to introduce it in all Nigerian primary schools. This study investigates the attitudes of student teachers towards mother-tongue instruction. Data for the study were gathered by means of a questionnaire administered to 106 students in a Nigerian college of education. It was found that the students had a generally negative attitude to it. The findings and their implications for educational planning and teacher education are discussed.
DOI : 10.1080/07908310408666683 Anahtar Kelimeler :
LANGUAGE POLICY, LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION, INSTRUCTION IN MOTHER TONGUE, MOTHER TONGUE TEACHING, LOCAL LANGUAGE AND INSTRUCTION
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 1 Cilt: 17 Sayfa: 73-81
This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a discussion of the concept of heritage mother tongues. This is followed by an overview of the present status of Native American languages, the historical and ideological bases of Native American language shift, and the policy framework for current language reclamation efforts. I then discuss four cases of grass-roots or ‘bottom up’ language planning that illustrate the ways in which Native American communities are working around and through historical and institutional constraints to reclaim and maintain their heritage mother tongues. I conclude with a reflection on the challenges and possibilities these efforts raise, their significance as part of a global language rights movement, and their potential to strengthen linguistic and cultural diversity in the USA.
DOI : 10.1080/07908310802385881 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Native American/Indigenous languages, language endangerment, language revitalisation, language planning and policy
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 3 Cilt: 21 Sayfa: 201-225
Learning to read and write is a psycholinguistic and social process. That is why mother-tongue speakers of minority African languages find learning to read in the language they speak is a qualitatively better learning experience than learning to read in a language they are unfamiliar with. However, reading methodologies used for teaching reading in sub-Saharan Africa are usually borrowed from other linguistic environments. Having been developed and tested on learners in the West, in European languages, these methodologies reflect their linguistic origins in a way that disadvantages Africans who attempt to use them for mother-tongue literacy learning. This paper argues for matching reading methodologies in Africa to the linguistic characteristics of the learners’ languages. Particular language families have linguistic distinctives that need to be taken into consideration; orthographic distinctives of the various languages must also be considered for the most effective choice of literacy learning methods. These complexities are often ignored in the formal school environment, where the influence of European languages and traditional Western reading methods is strong. For those Africans who cannot read or write, literacy instruction in their mother tongue is immensely advantageous to the learning process.
DOI : 10.2167/lcc333.0 Anahtar Kelimeler :
language and reading, reading methodologies, reading and cognition
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 3 Cilt: 20 Sayfa: 165-180
Formulations of linguistic rights in European official documents reveal important ideological characteristics of the thinking about language in European societies. These ideologies have important consequences for the language policies and education policies pursued by authorities and for the norms of language use promoted by education systems and gatekeepers. At the bottom of this is the concept of ‘languages’ as separable entities, a concept which cannot be upheld with respect to the real-life behaviours of speakers. As such, languages are sociocultural constructions, and norms of language use which aim at ‘purity’ are in contrast to everyday linguistic behaviours among speakers. Based on examples from ongoing studies of youth language, I suggest that other norms are more relevant, in particular the so-called poly-languaging, a term which covers the use of various features regardless of their ideologically determined association with ‘languages’. This notion is relevant, particularly in superdiverse societies, not only in accounting for behaviours, but also with respect to education and with respect to language rights.
DOI : 10.1080/07908318.2011.653058 Anahtar Kelimeler :
norms of language use, language ideologies, language rights, language in superdiversity, poly-lingualism
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 1 Cilt: 25 Sayfa: 57-71
This paper reports on the narrative of Shannon, a Taiwanese Canadian female assistant language teacher (ALT) of the Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) Programme, one of the world’s largest government-sponsored programmes for recruiting English language teachers to teach overseas [Nagatomo (2016 Nagatomo, D. H. (2016). Identity, gender and teaching English in Japan. Multilingual Matters.[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]). Identity, gender and teaching English in Japan. Multilingual Matters]. The interview data were analyzed with the methodology of critical discursive psychology (CDP), a version of discourse analysis developed by Wetherall and Potter (1992. Mapping the language of racism: Discourse and the legitimation of exploitation. Harvester Wheatsheaf). CDP allows the researchers to engage in ‘double movement’ of Marxist ideological critique and Foucauldian genealogical analysis, with which I demonstrate how Shannon’s subject position was conditioned by broader ideologies and discourses about race, gender, and language. My analysis highlights how the ideology of native speakerism impacts an Asian native speaker’s experience as an ALT in Japan with a particular focus on Shannon’s struggle in a dilemmatic subject position between Asian Self and foreign Other. Due to her Asian appearance, Shannon constantly felt that she was ‘not foreign enough’ to fulfil the role of an exoticised native speaker and struggled to negotiate her legitimacy as an English teacher. Taking dilemma as a generative space for change, I discuss potential pathways for ideological critique and discursive transformation.
Many EFL learners find that they are unable to comprehend natural spoken English delivered at normal speed. The paper reports a study of listening problems encountered in the EFL classroom in the ESP Centre at Damascus University, as reported by the learners themselves. It looks in particular at learner strategies, features of the listening text, characteristics of the speaker, attitudes of the listener, the task to be completed as a result of understanding the text, and the degree of visual or written support for the aural input. The results of the study show that EFL learners experience a range of listening problems. To overcome them, various techniques which help learners to utilise effective strategies to confront problems of listening comprehension are discussed and the pedagogic implications are stated.
This paper investigates persuasion as a sodolinguistic phenomenon in Jordanian society. It focuses upon three main modes of persuasion: trustworthiness, argument, and emotional appeal. It also explores attitudes toward a number of factors that might facilitate persuasion success, and highlights the influence of religion, heritage and other socio‐cultural factors on persuasiveness. The study maintains that devices such as the Quranic verses, the Traditions, wisdoms and proverbs, as well as trustworthiness, are crucial parameters in the formulation and change of one's attitude, beliefs and orientation.
Despite the increasing recognition of the need for critical perspectives in teaching English to speakers of other languages, critical literacy remains very much a marginalised practice. The implementation of critical literacy is still limited in English-as-a-second-language classrooms and is almost non-existent in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) contexts. To address this gap, this study explores an EFL writing curriculum that aimed to integrate both critical education and literacy education. The study examines students' critical writing practices that resulted from this implementation and considers its implications for the EFL curriculum. The study demonstrates that critical writing enabled the students to understand their lives in relation to the world. It became a means of transforming and creating knowledge, and allowed them to become socially relevant and locally/globally involved. It provided an example of the power of critical writing to affect the writer's understanding of society and to enable the writer to rethink and revision the possibilities of a better world. The study also exemplifies the potential of critical literacy in an EFL curriculum where students gain a global perspective as equal participating members on personal, cultural, social, economic, and political levels.
DOI : 10.1080/07908318.2012.723715 Anahtar Kelimeler :
critical literacy, critical writing, English-as-a-foreign-language writing, second language writing, critical pedagogy, teacher inquiry
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 3 Cilt: 25 Sayfa: 283-298
The role of culture in TEFL has received considerable attention in the past twenty years. While few researchers doubt its importance, how, and to what extent culture should be part of the TEFL curriculum remains unresolved. The present study investigates native English speaking teachers' views on the role of culture in TEFL. Twenty-eight university-level teachers in Japan responded to a questionnaire providing comments about the extent and nature of the culture they teach. Respondents felt that while culture should be part of TEFL, they included it in their classes more randomly than other aspects of their teaching. Teachers also had given serious thought and taken action to make changes in their teaching style based on the observation of their students' cultural style of learning. Responses to questions on ELT textbooks revealed that participants had some dissatisfaction with the way they treated culture.
The opportunity for language teachers to spend some time in a country where their language is spoken, is one which is highly valued as a way of updating linguistic skills and knowledge of the culture. Often the period is short, but whatever the length, teachers need to profit from the stay as much as possible. The argument in this article is that through the ethnographic interview teachers can gain a deeper understanding of an aspect of a foreign culture from an insider viewpoint, and simultaneously learn how to analyse and interpret the insider account from an observer's perspective. Teachers will then be in a position to mediate and interpret for their learners, and to provide them with data and techniques for developing their own understanding independently. The article describes materials developed for in‐service training and a pilot course which tested them with a group of Irish teachers about to spend some time in France.
This paper discusses the potentiality of Kiswahili in accelerating social, political, economic and cultural integration within the Great Lakes Region. Presently, Kiswahili is a de facto lingua franca spoken by almost 100 million people in the world (Ntakirutimana, 2000). This is an indication of its viability in promoting unity among people with different linguistic backgrounds. In fact, the recommendation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to adopt Kiswahili as a working language of the organisation in 1986 was motivated by this linguistic and cultural ability of the language. The paper discusses the reasons for the failure to implement these recommendations, and argues that the development of trade within and across borders will be hindered where communication is based on different ethnic languages, or on foreign languages that are not understood by all. The logical basis for making Kiswahili the appropriate tool in facilitating unity and motivating socioeconomic integration in the Great Lakes region is outlined, and recommendations are made for the empowerment of Kiswahili adequately to meet this challenge.
The purpose of this study is to explore the nature of attitudes held by parents of Jewish Hebrew students at a Boston area Sunday school. Five parents of diverse backgrounds were interviewed in-depth to discuss the nature of their attitudes. Three common themes emerged related to the reasons for their high levels of involvement with the Sunday school: (1) the importance of interpersonal relationships within the Jewish community, (2) support in discovering elements of Jewish identity, and (3) the responsibility for constructing necessary social and educational structures or frameworks in order for the learning to be possible. Implications of the study for the development of Sunday school Hebrew classes in North America are discussed.
This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners’ rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data analysis revealed that culture was often conceptualised as a set of products, behaviours, historical events, and customs tied to a country. A majority of the participants demonstrated an interest for cultivating cultural knowledge in the classroom with only a minority questioning the teachability or relevance of culture. Learners’ perspectives thus either aligned with an instrumentalist view of language study, an in-between, or a constitutive view and approach to culture. The examination of the responses suggests that learners possess an understanding of culture as only useful in context, specifically when travelling or studying abroad. Findings also point to a need in advanced-level courses to devise instructional activities that adopt a ‘reflective, interpretative, historically grounded, and politically engaged pedagogy’ [Kramsch, C. (2014). Teaching foreign languages in an era of globalization: Introduction. The Modern Language Journal, 98(1), 296–311, p. 296]. Such activities aim at learners interacting, experiencing, and examining how beliefs, values, and frames of reference affect cultural behaviours, language choices, and can encourage an understanding of the interconnection between language and culture.
DOI : 10.1080/07908318.2015.1078347 Anahtar Kelimeler :
USA, Spanish, postsecondary education, foreign language teaching, communicative language learning, cultural content
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 3 Cilt: 28 Sayfa: 243-256
The attitudes of 100 Israeli-Jewish students toward learning Arabic and coexistence with Arabs within Israel were investigated, as was their evaluation of characters they read about in familiar and unfamiliar texts. The students were found to possess low instrumental and low indoors integrative motivation, but their army service motivation and outdoors integrative motivation were high.Further, they were interested in reading the familiar text, and their understanding of it was higher than their understanding in the unfamiliar text. They evaluated the Prophet Mohammed significantly more positively than the British character.
This study investigates the process and its effect for a doctoral student's advanced academic literacy (AAL) development in the context of student-supervisor relationship (SSR). The data sources comprise an authentic three-year tutorial record and 68 reflective learning journals written by a successful Chinese doctoral student of linguistics. The case shows that the participant developed a cognitive, cooperative, dialogic and instructive student-supervisor relationship and her learning activities in doctoral education are rich and constructive. The participant built her expertise mainly through knowledge acquisition and by a significant amount of academic writing practice for publication. Aided by her supervisor, the participant successfully joined as a research member the given sociocultural community. This socialisation promotes her professional identity transformation. The findings also reveal some weaknesses in the participant's AAL development, such as a lack of solid theoretical knowledge base, meaningful peer interaction, and in-depth integration into the international academic community.
This paper investigates the code-switching behaviour of two native speaker teachers teaching their mother tongue French and Korean, respectively to predominantly English monolingual students in New Zealand secondary schools. A close analysis of these teachers’ classroom discourse and their perceptions about classroom language use reveals a range of factors which, in spite of their proficiency, constrain their use of the target language (TL) for teaching purposes. While the individual teachers’ attitude toward TL use appeared to be the main determinant of their differing degrees of TL use for instruction, there were also institutional and societal factors which influenced the way they constructed their bilingual identities and manifested in different patterns of language choice. These factors included the status of the TL within the educational system, and the pervasive presence of English as the convenient vehicle for message conveyance in the wider context. Implications are drawn for teacher training and language policy.
DOI : 10.1080/07908310802287574 Anahtar Kelimeler :
target language use, foreign language teaching, language of instruction, L2 classroom research, native speaker teacher, teacher talk
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 2 Cilt: 21 Sayfa: 167-185
This article investigates the premise that literary texts use language in aesthetic, imaginative and engaging ways that have considerable potential to extend the learning of bilingual pupils. It draws on research findings from a qualitative study that examined the value of developing pedagogic practices for emergent bilingual learners at the interface between language and literature. The educational research is framed from an ethnographic perspective and employs critical discourse analysis of classroom interaction. The research addresses the current gap in studies of bilingual pupils' learning in majority language classrooms at secondary level. The findings show the risk of placing bilingual learners in low-ability sets where their exposure to literature may be limited and language skills are frequently taught in isolation. In contrast, bilingual learners who were given the opportunity to use language creatively and had access to a range of texts slowly became attuned to the musicality of the new language and developed deeper word knowledge. The findings indicate that through drawing on bilingual learners' contextual knowledge and making space for cross-cultural discourses around texts, these learners can understand both the local and global in acts of reading. The research points to the need for a pluralistic pedagogy in learning literacies.
DOI : 10.1080/07908318.2013.852566 Anahtar Kelimeler :
pedagogy, emergent bilingual learners, language of literature, classroom interaction, acts of reading
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 3 Cilt: 26 Sayfa: 300-316
The study investigated reading errors made by Ethiopian learners of Hebrew (n = 34). These newcomers to Israel, unlike other groups such as the Russian Jews, typically have low literacy skills in their first language (Amharic). Their ability to read Hebrew, as judged on a reading comprehension test, was still poor after living in Israel for seven years. In this study they were asked to read aloud a list of selected words in Hebrew. Their reading errors were analysed, indicating a dominant phonological reading type of error. This result is discussed in the light of the firstlanguage skills, culture and social contact of the Ethiopian newcomers in Israel with the target language group.
Increased immigration in Europe and worldwide has led to more pre- and primary school students being educated through the medium of a second language, and there is considerable research, much of it coming from Australia, to suggest that in order to cope with this situation, children will need to begin to acquire, from their earliest years in pre-school, a variety of knowledge-based language skills that will be sufficient to carry them through the subject-based education they will encounter in their subsequent schooling. This is particularly important for L2-students who are less likely to meet academic language outside the school. In this paper, based on transcripts of oral interactions in the classroom, it is argued that conversational and story-telling skills, oral and written, provide a rich environment for the development of academic school language, while at the same time promoting and making good use of the cultural diversity that is increasingly a feature of pre-primary and primary classrooms.
DOI : 10.1080/07908318.2010.515995 Anahtar Kelimeler :
narration, multilingual education, multiliteracy, diverse classrooms, academic school language
ISSN: 0790-8318 Sayı: 3 Cilt: 23 Sayfa: 219-233