Hydrodynamic cavitation is considered an effective tool to be used in different applications, such as surface cleaning, ones in the food industry, energy harvesting, water treatment, biomedical applications, and heat transfer enhancement. Thus, both characterization and intensification of cavitation phenomenon are of great importance. This study involves design and optimization of cavitation on chip devices by utilizing wall roughness elements and working fluid alteration. Seven different microfluidic devices were fabricated and tested. In order to harvest more energy from cavitating flows, different roughness elements were used to decrease the inlet pressure (input to the system), at which cavitation inception occurs. The implemented wall roughness elements were engineered structures in the shape of equilateral triangles embedded in the design of the microfluidic devices. The cavitation phenomena were also studied using ethanol as the working fluid, so that the fluid behavior differences in the tested cavitation on chip devices were explained and compared. The employment of the wall roughness elements was an effective approach to optimize the performances of the devices. The experimental results exhibited entirely different flow patterns for ethanol compared to water, which suggests the dominant effect of the surface tension on hydrodynamic cavitation in microfluidic channels.
Diamond's nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers show great promise in sensing applications and quantum computing due to their long electron spin coherence time and because they can be found, manipulated, and read out optically. An important step forward for diamond photonics would be connecting multiple diamond NVs together using optical waveguides. However, the inertness of diamond is a significant hurdle for the fabrication of integrated optics similar to those that revolutionized silicon photonics. In this work, we show the fabrication of optical waveguides in diamond, enabled by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. By optimizing the geometry of the waveguide, we obtain single mode waveguides from the visible to the infrared. Additionally, we show the laser writing of individual NV centers within the bulk of diamond. We use mu-Raman spectroscopy to gain better insight on the stress and the refractive index profile of the optical waveguides. Using optically detected magnetic resonance and confocal photoluminescence characterization, high quality NV properties are observed in waveguides formed in various grades of diamond, making them promising for applications such as magnetometry, quantum information systems, and evanescent field sensors.
Inertial microfluidics is a promising tool for a label-free particle manipulation for microfluidics technology. It can be utilized for particle separation based on size and shape, as well as focusing of particles. Prediction of particles' trajectories is essential for the design of inertial microfluidic devices. At this point, numerical modeling is an important tool to understand the underlying physics and assess the performance of devices. A Monte Carlo-type computational model based on a Lagrangian discrete phase model is developed to simulate the particle trajectories in a spiral microchannel for inertial microfluidics. The continuous phase (flow field) is solved without the presence of a discrete phase (particles) using COMSOL Multi-physics. Once the flow field is obtained, the trajectory of particles is determined in the post-processing step via the COMSOL-MATLAB interface. To resemble the operation condition of the device, the random inlet position of the particles, many particles are simulated with random initial locations from the inlet of the microchannel. The applicability of different models for the inertial forces is discussed. The computational model is verified with experimental results from the literature. Different cases in a spiral channel with aspect ratios of 2.0 and 9.0 are simulated. The simulation results for the spiral channel with an aspect ratio of 9.0 are compared against the experimental data. The results reveal that despite certain limitations of our model, the current computational model satisfactorily predicts the location and the width of the focusing streams.
Laminar flow microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are used to understand the role of microorganisms, and their interactions with electrodes in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. In this study, we reported the flow characteristics of laminar flow in a typical MFC configuration in a non-dimensional form, which can serve as a guideline in the design of such microfluidic systems. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed to examine the effects of channel geometries, surface characteristics, and fluid velocity on the mixing dynamics in microchannels with a rectangular cross-section. The results showed that decreasing the fluid velocity enhances mixing but changing the angle between the inlet channels, only had strong effects when the angle was larger than 135 degrees. Furthermore, different mixing behaviors were observed depending on the angle of the channels, when the microchannel aspect ratio was reduced. Asymmetric growth of microbial biofilm on the anode side skewed the mixing zone and wall roughness due to the bacterial attachment, which accelerated the mixing process and reduced the efficiency of the laminar flow MFC. Finally, the magnitude of mass diffusivity had a substantial effect on mixing behavior. The results shown here provided both design guidelines, as well as better understandings of the MFCs due to microbial growth.
Being one of the major pillars of liquid biopsy, isolation and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) during cancer management provides critical information on the evolution of cancer and has great potential to increase the success of therapies. In this article, we define a novel strategy to effectively enrich CTCs from whole blood based on size, utilizing a spiral microfluidic channel embedded with a hydrofoil structure at the downstream of the spiral channel. The hydrofoil increases the distance between the streams of CTCs and peripheral blood cells, which are already distributed about two focal axes by the spiral channel, thereby improving the resolution of the separation. Analytical validation of the system has been carried out using Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF7) breast cancer cell lines spiked into blood samples from healthy donors, and the performance of the system in terms of white blood cell (WBC) depletion, CTC recovery rate and cell viability has been shown in single or two-step process: by passing the sample once or twice through the microfluidic chip. Single step process yielded high recovery (77.1%), viable (84.7%) CTCs. When the collected cell suspension is re-processed by the same chip, recovery decreases to 65.5%, while the WBC depletion increases to 88.3%, improving the purity. Cell viability of >80% was preserved after two-step process. The novel microfluidic chip is a good candidate for CTC isolation applications requiring high recovery rate and viability, including functional downstream analyses for variety of cancer types.
A linear non-resonant kinetic energy harvester for implantable devices is presented. The design contains a metal platform with permanent magnets, two stators with three-dimensional helical coils for increased power generation, ball bearings, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) package for biocompatibility. Mechanical excitation of this device within the body due to daily activities leads to a relative motion between the platform and stators, resulting in electromagnetic induction. Initial prototypes without packaging have been fabricated and characterized on a linear shaker. Dynamic tests showed that the friction force acting on the platform is on the order of 0.6 mN. The resistance and the inductance of the coils were measured to be 2.2 and 0.4 mu H, respectively. A peak open circuit voltage of 1.05 mV was generated per stator at a platform speed of 5.8 cm/s. Further development of this device offers potential for recharging the batteries of implantable biomedical devices within the body.
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are biological fuel cells based on the oxidation of fuels by electrogenic bacteria to generate an electric current in electrochemical cells. There are several methods that can be employed to improve their performance. In this study, the effects of gold surface modification with different thiol molecules were investigated for their implementation as anode electrodes in micro-scale MFCs (mu MFCs). Several double-chamber mu MFCs with 10.4 mu L anode and cathode chambers were fabricated using silicon-microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technology. mu MFC systems assembled with modified gold anodes were operated under anaerobic conditions with the continuous feeding of anolyte and catholyte to compare the effect of different thiol molecules on the biofilm formation ofShewanella oneidensisMR-1. Performances were evaluated using polarization curves, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM). The results showed that mu MFCs modified with thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) (cysteamine and 11-MUA) resulted in more than a 50% reduction in start-up times due to better bacterial attachment on the anode surface. Both 11-MUA and cysteamine modifications resulted in dense biofilms, as observed in SEM images. The power output was found to be similar in cysteamine-modified and bare gold mu MFCs. The power and current densities obtained in this study were comparable to those reported in similar studies in the literature.
Magnetically actuated microrobot in a liquid media is faced with the problem of head-tilting reaction caused by its hydrodynamic structure and its speed while moving horizontally. When the instance microrobot starts a lateral motion, the drag force acting on it increases. Thus, the microrobot is unable to move parallel to the surface due to the existence of drag force that cannot be neglected, particularly at high speeds such as >5 mm/s. The effect of it scales exponentially at different speeds and the head-tilting angle of the microrobot changes relative to the reference surface. To the best of our knowledge, there is no prior study on this problem, and no solution has been proposed so far. In this study, we developed and experimented with 3 control models to stabilize microrobot motion characteristics in liquid media to achieve accurate lateral locomotion. The microrobot moves in an untethered manner, and its localization is carried out by a neodymium magnet (grade N48) placed inside its polymer body. This permanent magnet is called a carrier-magnet. The fabricated microrobot is levitated diamagnetically using a pyrolytic graphite placed under it and an external permanent magnet, called a lifter-magnet (grade N48), aligned above it. The lifter-magnet is attached to a servo motor mechanism which can control carrier-magnet orientation along with roll and pitch axes. Controlling the angle of this servo motor, together with the lifter-magnet, allowed us to cope with the head-tilting reaction instantly. Based on the finite element method (FEM), analyses that were designed according to this experimental setup, the equations giving the relation of microrobot speed with servo motor angle along with the microrobot head-tilting angle with servo motor angle, were derived. The control inputs were obtained by COMSOL (R) (version 5.3, COMSOL Inc., Stockholm, Sweden). Using these derived equations, the rule-based model, laser model, and hybrid model techniques were proposed in this study to decrease the head-tilting angle. Motion control algorithms were applied in di-ionized water medium. According to the results for these 3 control strategies, at higher speeds (>5 mm/s) and 5 mm horizontal motion trajectory, the average head-tilting angle was reduced to 2.7 degrees with the ruled-based model, 1.1 degrees with the laser model, and 0.7 degrees with the hybrid model.
BioMEMS, the biological and biomedical applications of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), has attracted considerable attention in recent years and has found widespread applications in disease detection, advanced diagnosis, therapy, drug delivery, implantable devices, and tissue engineering. One of the most essential and leading goals of the BioMEMS and biosensor technologies is to develop point-of-care (POC) testing systems to perform rapid prognostic or diagnostic tests at a patient site with high accuracy. Manipulation of particles in the analyte of interest is a vital task for POC and biosensor platforms. Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the induced movement of particles in a non-uniform electrical field due to polarization effects, is an accurate, fast, low-cost, and marker-free manipulation technique. It has been indicated as a promising method to characterize, isolate, transport, and trap various particles. The aim of this review is to provide fundamental theory and principles of DEP technique, to explain its importance for the BioMEMS and biosensor fields with detailed references to readers, and to identify and exemplify the application areas in biosensors and POC devices. Finally, the challenges faced in DEP-based systems and the future prospects are discussed.
A new microrobot manipulation technique with high precision (nano level) positional accuracy to move in a liquid environment with diamagnetic levitation is presented. Untethered manipulation of microrobots by means of externally applied magnetic forces has been emerging as a promising field of research, particularly due to its potential for medical and biological applications. The purpose of the presented method is to eliminate friction force between the surface of the substrate and microrobot. In an effort to achieve high accuracy motion, required magnetic force for the levitation of the microrobot was determined by finite element method (FEM) simulations in COMSOL (version 5.3, COMSOL Inc., Stockholm, Sweden) and verified by experimental results. According to position of the lifter magnet, the levitation height of the microrobot in the liquid was found analytically, and compared with the experimental results head-to-head. The stable working range of the microrobot is between 30 mu m to 330 mu m, and it was confirmed in both simulations and experimental results. It can follow the given trajectory with high accuracy (<1 mu m error avg.) at varied speeds and levitation heights. Due to the nano-level positioning accuracy, desired locomotion can be achieved in pre-specified trajectories (sinusoidal or circular). During its locomotion, phase difference between lifter magnet and carrier magnet has been observed, and relation with drag force effect has been discussed. Without using strong electromagnets or bulky permanent magnets, our manipulation approach can move the microrobot in three dimensions in a liquid environment.
Integration of microfabricated, single-cell resolution and traditional, population-level biological assays will be the future of modern techniques in biology that will enroll in the evolution of biology into a precision scientific discipline. In this study, we developed a microfabricated cell culture platform to investigate the indirect influence of macrophages on glioma cell behavior. We quantified proliferation, morphology, motility, migration, and deformation properties of glioma cells at single-cell level and compared these results with population-level data. Our results showed that glioma cells obtained slightly slower proliferation, higher motility, and extremely significant deformation capability when cultured with 50% regular growth medium and 50% macrophage-depleted medium. When the expression levels of E-cadherin and Vimentin proteins were measured, it was verified that observed mechanophenotypic alterations in glioma cells were not due to epithelium to mesenchymal transition. Our results were consistent with previously reported enormous heterogeneity of U87 glioma cell line. Herein, for the first time, we quantified the change of deformation indexes of U87 glioma cells using microfluidic devices for single-cells analysis.
To transform from reactive to proactive healthcare, there is an increasing need for low-cost and portable assays to continuously perform health measurements. The paper-based analytical devices could be a potential fit for this need. To miniaturize the multiplex paper-based microfluidic analytical devices and minimize reagent use, a fabrication method with high resolution along with low fabrication cost should be developed. Here, we present an approach that uses a desktop pen plotter and a high-resolution technical pen for plotting high-resolution patterns to fabricate miniaturized paper-based microfluidic devices with hundreds of detection zones to conduct different assays. In order to create a functional multiplex paper-based analytical device, the hydrophobic solution is patterned on the cellulose paper and the reagents are deposited in the patterned detection zones using the technical pens. We demonstrated the effect of paper substrate thickness on the resolution of patterns by investigating the resolution of patterns on a chromatography paper with altered effective thickness. As the characteristics of the cellulose paper substrate such as thickness, resolution, and homogeneity of pore structure affect the obtained patterning resolution, we used regenerated cellulose paper to fabricate detection zones with a diameter as small as 0.8 mm. Moreover, in order to fabricate a miniaturized multiplex paper-based device, we optimized packing of the detection zones. We also showed the capability of the presented method for fabrication of 3D paper-based microfluidic devices with hundreds of detection zones for conducting colorimetric assays.
A surface with large reflection variations represents one of the biggest challenges for optical 3D shape measurement. In this work, we propose an alternative hybrid 3D shape measurement approach, which combines the high accuracy of fringe projection profilometry (FPP) with the robustness of laser stripe scanning (LSS). To integrate these two technologies into one system, first, we developed a biaxial Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) scanning micromirror projection system. In this system, a shaped laser beam serves as a light source. The MEMS micromirror projects the laser beam onto the object surface. Different patterns are produced by controlling the laser source and micromirror jointly. Second, a quality wised algorithm is delivered to develop a hybrid measurement scheme. FPP is applied to obtain the main 3D information. Then, LSS helps to reconstruct the missing depth guided by the quality map. After this, the data fusion algorithm is used to merge and output complete measurement results. Finally, our experiments show significant improvement in the accuracy and robustness of measuring a surface with large reflection variations. In the experimental instance, the accuracy of the proposed method is improved by 0.0278 mm and the integrity is improved by 83.55%.
The use of implanted microelectrode arrays (MEAs), in the brain, has enabled a greater understanding of neural function, and new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Glial encapsulation of the device and the loss of neurons at the device-tissue interface are widely believed to reduce recording quality and limit the functional device-lifetime. The integration of microfluidic channels within MEAs enables the perturbation of the cellular pathways, through defined vector delivery. This provides new approaches to shed light on the underlying mechanisms of the reactive response and its contribution to device performance. In chronic settings, however, tissue ingrowth and biofouling can obstruct or damage the channel, preventing vector delivery. In this study, we describe methods of delivering vectors through chronically implanted, single-shank, “Michigan”-style microfluidic devices, 1–3 weeks, post-implantation. We explored and validated three different approaches for modifying gene expression at the device-tissue interface: viral-mediated overexpression, siRNA-enabled knockdown, and cre-dependent conditional expression. We observed a successful delivery of the vectors along the length of the MEA, where the observed expression varied, depending on the depth of the injury. The methods described are intended to enable vector delivery through microfluidic devices for a variety of potential applications; likewise, future design considerations are suggested for further improvements on the approach.
This paper proposes a novel high-capacitance-ratio radio frequency micro-electromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switch. The proposed RF MEMS mainly consists of serpentine flexure MEMS metallic beam, comprised of coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line, dielectric and metal-insulator-metal (MIM) floating metallic membrane. Comparing the proposed high-capacitance-ratio MEMS switch with the ones in available literature, an acceptable insertion loss insulation, acceptable response time and high capacitance ratio (383.8) are achieved.
We have demonstrated full-color and white-color micro light-emitting diodes (μLEDs) using InGaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire heterostructures, grown on silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. InGaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire μLED arrays were fabricated with their wavelengths tunable from blue to red by controlling the indium composition in the device active regions. Moreover, our fabricated phosphor-free white-color μLEDs demonstrate strong and highly stable white-light emission with high color rendering index of ~ 94. The μLEDs are in circular shapes with the diameter varying from 30 to 100 μm. Such high-performance μLEDs are perfectly suitable for the next generation of high-resolution micro-display applications.
The manipulation of droplet mobility on a nanotextured surface by oxygen plasma is demonstrated by modulating the modes of hydrophobic coatings and controlling the hierarchy of nanostructures. The spin-coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) allows for heterogeneous hydrophobization of the high-aspect-ratio nanostructures and provides the nanostructured surface with “sticky hydrophobicity”, whereas the self-assembled monolayer coating of perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) results in homogeneous hydrophobization and “slippery superhydrophobicity”. While the high droplet adhesion (stickiness) on a nanostructured surface with the spin-coating of PTFE is maintained, the droplet contact angle is enhanced by creating hierarchical nanostructures via the combination of oxygen plasma etching with laser interference lithography to achieve “sticky superhydrophobicity”. Similarly, the droplet mobility on a slippery nanostructured surface with the self-assembled monolayer coating of FDTS is also enhanced by employing the hierarchical nanostructures to achieve “slippery superhydrophobicity” with modulated slipperiness.
Bionic flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs) are promising for a variety of applications because of their flexibility and high mobility. This study reviews the state-of-the-art FWMAVs of various research institutes driven by electrical motor, mechanical transmission structure and “artificial muscle„ material and then elaborates on the aerodynamic mechanism of micro-winged birds and insects. Owing to their low mass budget, FWMAVs require actuators with high power density from micrometer to centimeter scales. The selection and design of the mechanical transmission should be considered in parallel with the design of the power electronic interface required to drive it. Finally, power electronic topologies suitable for driving “artificial muscle„ materials used in FWMAVs are stated.
DOI : 10.3390/mi10020144 Anahtar Kelimeler :
bionic flapping-wing micro air vehicle, aerodynamic mechanism, mechanical transmission, actuator, power electronic interface
ISSN: 2072-666X Cilt: 10 Sayı: 2 Sayfa: 144
In this study, we developed a method for fabricating a microfluidic device with integrated large-scale all-glass valves and constructed an actuator system to control each of the valves on the device. Such a microfluidic device has advantages that allow its use in various fields, including physical, chemical, and biochemical analyses and syntheses. However, it is inefficient and difficult to integrate the large-scale all-glass valves in a microfluidic device using conventional glass fabrication methods, especially for the through-hole fabrication step. Therefore, we have developed a fabrication method for the large-scale integration of all-glass valves in a microfluidic device that contains 110 individually controllable diaphragm valve units on a 30 mm × 70 mm glass slide. This prototype device was fabricated by first sandwiching a 0.4-mm-thick glass slide that contained 110 1.5-mm-diameter shallow chambers, each with two 50-μm-diameter through-holes, between an ultra-thin glass sheet (4 μm thick) and another 0.7-mm-thick glass slide that contained etched channels. After the fusion bonding of these three layers, the large-scale microfluidic device was obtained with integrated all-glass valves consisting of 110 individual diaphragm valve units. We demonstrated its use as a pump capable of generating a flow rate of approximately 0.06–5.33 μL/min. The maximum frequency of flow switching was approximately 12 Hz.
The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become an attractive topic for soft tissue healing therapy recently. While some clinical reports revealed the effective treatments for knee osteoarthritis, lateral epicondylitis, and rotator cuff tears, other case studies showed that there was no statistically significant healing improvement. The efficacy of the PRP therapy is still unclear clinically. Thus, a significant amount of basic studies should be conducted to optimize the preparation procedure and the platelet concentration of the PRP. In this work, a 3-chamber co-culture device was developed for the PRP study in order to reduce the usage of primary cells and to avoid the PRP gelation effect. The device was a culture, well partitioning into 3 sub-chambers. Tenocytes and PRP could be respectively loaded into the sub-chambers and co-cultured under the interlinked medium. The results showed that a higher platelet number in the PRP could diffuse higher concentration of the growth factors in the medium and induce higher tenocyte proliferation. The 3-chamber co-culture device provides a simple and practical tool for the PRP study. It is potentially applied for optimizing the preparation procedure and platelet concentration of the PRP therapy.
We demonstrate a promising strategy to combine the micro-electromechanical film bulk acoustic resonator and the nanostructured sensitive fibers for the detection of low-concentration formaldehyde vapor. The polyethyleneimine nanofibers were directly deposited on the resonator surface by a simple electrospinning method. The film bulk acoustic resonator working at 4.4 GHz acted as a sensitive mass loading platform and the three-dimensional structure of nanofibers provided a large specific surface area for vapor adsorption and diffusion. The ultra-small mass change induced by the absorption of formaldehyde molecules onto the amine groups in polyethyleneimine was detected by measuring the frequency downshift of the film bulk acoustic resonator. The proposed sensor exhibits a fast, reversible and linear response towards formaldehyde vapor with an excellent selectivity. The gas sensitivity and the detection limit were 1.216 kHz/ppb and 37 ppb, respectively. The study offers a great potential for developing sensitive, fast-response and portable sensors for the detection of indoor air pollutions.
DOI : 10.3390/mi9020062 Anahtar Kelimeler :
film bulk acoustic resonator, formaldehyde, gas sensor, nanofibers
ISSN: 2072-666X Cilt: 9 Sayı: 2 Sayfa: 62
As there are significant variations of cell elasticity among individual cells, measuring the elasticity of batch cells is required for obtaining statistical results of cell elasticity. At present, the micropipette aspiration (MA) technique is the most widely used cell elasticity measurement method. Due to a lack of effective cell storage and delivery methods, the existing manual and robotic MA methods are only capable of measuring a single cell at a time, making the MA of batch cells low efficiency. To address this problem, we developed a robotic MA system capable of storing multiple cells with a feeder micropipette (FM), picking up cells one-by-one to measure their elasticity with a measurement micropipette (MM). This system involved the following key techniques: Maximum permissible tilt angle of MM and FM determination, automated cell adhesion detection and cell adhesion break, and automated cell aspiration. The experimental results demonstrated that our system was able to continuously measure more than 20 cells with a manipulation speed quadrupled in comparison to existing methods. With the batch cell measurement ability, cell elasticity of pig ovum cultured in different environmental conditions was measured to find optimized culturing protocols for oocyte maturation.
For the sake of decreasing the effects of noise and temperature error on the measurement accuracy of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes, a denoising and temperature drift compensation parallel model method based on wavelet transform and forward linear prediction (WFLP) and support vector regression based on the cuckoo search algorithm (CS-SVR) is proposed in this paper. First, variational mode decomposition (VMD) is proposed in this paper, which is aimed at dividing the output signal of the gyroscope into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs); then, the IMFs are classified into three features—drift, mixed, and pure noise features—by the sample entropy (SE) value. Second, a wavelet transform and forward linear prediction (WFLP) are combined to remove the noise from the mixed features. Meanwhile, the drift feature is compensated by support vector regression based on the cuckoo search algorithm (CS-SVR). Finally, through reconstruction, the final signal is obtained. Experimental results demonstrate that the VMD-SE-WFLP-CS-SVR method proposed in this paper can decrease noise and compensate the temperature error effectively (angular random walking value is optimized from 1.667°/√h to 0.0667°/√h and the bias stability is reduced from 30°/h to 4°/h). In terms of denoising, the performance of the WFLP algorithm is superior to the wavelet threshold and FLP, as it combines their advantages; furthermore, in terms of temperature compensation, the proposed CS-SVR algorithm uses the cuckoo search algorithm to find the optimal parameters of SVR, improving the accuracy of the model.
DOI : 10.3390/mi11060586 Anahtar Kelimeler :
MEMS gyroscope, denoising, temperature drift compensation, variational mode decomposition, cuckoo search, support vector regression
ISSN: 2072-666X Cilt: 11 Sayı: 586 Sayfa: 586
Exosomes are essential early biomarkers for health monitoring and cancer diagnosis. A prerequisite for further investigation of exosomes is the isolation, which is technically challenging due to the complexity of body fluids. This paper presents the development of an integrated microfluidic chip for exosomes isolation, which combines the traditional immunomagnetic bead-based protocol and the recently emerging microfluidic approach, resulting in benefits from both the high-purity of the former and the automated continuous superiority of the latter. The chip was designed based on an S-shaped micromixer with embedded baffle. The excellent mixing efficiency of this micromixer compared with Y-shaped and S-shaped micromixers was verified by simulation and experiments. The photolithography technique was employed to fabricate the integrated microfluidic chip, and the manufacturing process was elucidated. We finally established an experimental platform for exosomes isolation with the fabricated microfluidic chip built in. Exosomes isolation experiments were conducted using this platform. The distribution and morphology of the isolated exosomes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative size analyses based on transmission electron micrographs indicated that most of the obtained particles were between 30 and 150 nm. Western blot analyses of the isolated exosomes and the serum were conducted to verify the platform’s capability of isolating a certain subpopulation of exosomes corresponding to specified protein markers (CD63). The complete time for isolation of 150 μL serum samples was approximately 50 min, which was highly competitive with the reported existing protocols. Experimental results proved the capacity of the established integrated microfluidic chip for exosomes isolation with high purity, high integrity, and excellent efficiency. The platform can be further developed to make it possible for practical use in clinical applications as a universal exosomes isolation and characterization tool.
In this work, we investigate the surface transfer doping process that is induced between hydrogen-terminated (100) diamond and the metal oxides, MoO3 and V2O5, through simulation using a semi-empirical Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. DFT was used to calculate the band structure and charge transfer process between these oxide materials and hydrogen terminated diamond. Analysis of the band structures, density of states, Mulliken charges, adsorption energies and position of the Valence Band Minima (VBM) and Conduction Band Minima (CBM) energy levels shows that both oxides act as electron acceptors and inject holes into the diamond structure. Hence, those metal oxides can be described as p-type doping materials for the diamond. Additionally, our work suggests that by depositing appropriate metal oxides in an oxygen rich atmosphere or using metal oxides with high stochiometric ration between oxygen and metal atoms could lead to an increase of the charge transfer between the diamond and oxide, leading to enhanced surface transfer doping.
DOI : 10.3390/mi11040433 Anahtar Kelimeler :
surface transfer doping, 2D hole gas (2DHG), diamond
ISSN: 2072-666X Cilt: 11 Sayı: 433 Sayfa: 433
A convex spiral phaser array (CSPA) is designed and fabricated to generate typical convergent Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams. A type of 3D printing technology based on the two-photon absorption effect is used to make the CSPAs with different featured sizes, which present a structural integrity and fabricating accuracy of ~200 nm according to the surface topography measurements. The light field vortex characteristics of the CSPAs are evaluated through illuminating them by lasers with different central wavelength such as 450 nm, 530 nm and 650 nm. It should be noted that the arrayed light fields out from the CSPA are all changed from a clockwise vortex orientation to a circular distribution at the focal plane and then a counterclockwise vortex orientation. The circular light field is distributed 380–400 μm away from the CSPA, which is close to the 370 μm of the focal plane design. The convergent LG beams can be effectively shaped by the CASPs produced.
DOI : 10.3390/mi11080771 Anahtar Kelimeler :
vortex beams, 3D printing, two-photon absorption
ISSN: 2072-666X Cilt: 11 Sayı: 771 Sayfa: 771
In this research paper, we reported the synthesis of biochar-based composites using biochar derived from exhausted tea leaves and polypropylene. The resulting materials were deeply characterized investigating mechanical (dynamic mechanical thermal analysis), thermal (thermogravimetrical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry), morphological (field emission scanning microscopy) and electrical properties vs. temperature. Furthermore, electrical conductivity was studied for a wide range of pressures showing an irreversible plastic deformation. An increment of one order of magnitude in the conductivity was observed in the case of 40 wt% biochar loading, reaching a value of 0.2 S/m. The material produced exhibited the properties of an irreversible pressure sensor.
The defined formation and expansion of droplets are essential operations for droplet-based screening assays. The volumetric expansion of droplets causes a dilution of the ingredients. Dilution is required for the generation of concentration graduation which is mandatory for many different assay protocols. Here, we describe the design of a microfluidic operation unit based on a bypassed chamber and its operation modes. The different operation modes enable the defined formation of sub-µL droplets on the one hand and the expansion of low nL to sub-µL droplets by controlled coalescence on the other. In this way the chamber acts as fluidic interface between two fluidic network parts dimensioned for different droplet volumes. Hence, channel confined droplets of about 30–40 nL from the first network part were expanded to cannel confined droplets of about 500 to about 2500 nL in the second network part. Four different operation modes were realized: (a) flow rate independent droplet formation in a self-controlled way caused by the bypassed chamber design, (b) single droplet expansion mode, (c) multiple droplet expansion mode, and (d) multiple droplet coalescence mode. The last mode was used for the automated coalescence of 12 droplets of about 40 nL volume to produce a highly ordered output sequence with individual droplet volumes of about 500 nL volume. The experimental investigation confirmed a high tolerance of the developed chamber against the variation of key parameters of the dispersed-phase like salt content, pH value and fluid viscosity. The presented fluidic chamber provides a solution for the problem of bridging different droplet volumes in a fluidic network.
In the Hadamard transform (HT) near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer, there are defects that can create a nonuniform distribution of spectral energy, significantly influencing the absorbance of the whole spectrum, generating stray light, and making the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the spectrum inconsistent. To address this issue and improve the performance of the digital micromirror device (DMD) Hadamard transform near-infrared spectrometer, a split waveband scan mode is proposed to mitigate the impact of the stray light, and a new Hadamard mask of variable-width stripes is put forward to improve the SNR of the spectrometer. The results of the simulations and experiments indicate that by the new scan mode and Hadamard mask, the influence of stray light is restrained and reduced. In addition, the SNR of the spectrometer also is increased.
DOI : 10.3390/mi10020149 Anahtar Kelimeler :
spectrometer, infrared, digital micromirror device (DMD), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stray light
ISSN: 2072-666X Cilt: 10 Sayı: 2 Sayfa: 149
Curvature-induced dielectrophoresis (C-iDEP) is an established method of applying electrical energy gradients across curved microchannels to obtain a label-free manipulation of particles and cells. This method offers several advantages over the other DEP-based methods, such as increased chip area utilisation, simple fabrication, reduced susceptibility to Joule heating and reduced risk of electrolysis in the active region. Although C-iDEP systems have been extensively demonstrated to achieve focusing and separation of particles, a detailed mathematical analysis of the particle dynamics has not been reported yet. This work computationally confirms a fully analytical dimensionless study of the electric field-induced particle motion inside a circular arc microchannel, the simplest design of a C-iDEP system. Specifically, the analysis reveals that the design of a circular arc microchannel geometry for manipulating particles using an applied voltage is fully determined by three dimensionless parameters. Simple equations are established and numerically confirmed to predict the mutual relationships of the parameters for a comprehensive range of their practically relevant values, while ensuring design for safety. This work aims to serve as a starting point for microfluidics engineers and researchers to have a simple calculator-based guideline to develop C-iDEP particle manipulation systems specific to their applications.