The cbb (3)-type oxidases are members of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily, distant by sequence comparisons, but sharing common functional characteristics. The cbb (3) oxidases are missing an active-site tyrosine residue that is absolutely conserved in all A and B-type heme-copper oxidases. This tyrosine is known to play a critical role in the catalytic mechanisms of A and B-type oxidases. The absence of this tyrosine in the cbb (3) oxidases raises the possibility that the cbb (3) oxidases utilize a different catalytic mechanism from that of the other members of the superfamily, or have this conserved residue in different helices. Recently sequence comparisons indicate that, a tyrosine residues that might be analogous to the active-site tyrosine in other oxidases are present in the cbb (3) oxidases but these tyrosines originates from a different transmembrane helix within the protein. In this research, three conserved tyrosine residues, Y294, Y308 and Y318, in helix VII were substituted for phenylalanine. Y318F mutant in the Rhodobacter capsulatus oxidase resulted in a fully assembled enzyme with nativelike structure and activity, but Y294F mutant is not assembled and have a catalytic activity. On the other hand, Y308F mutant is fully assembled enzyme with nativelike structure, but lacking catalytic activity. This result indicates that Y308 should be crucial in catalytic activity of the cbb (3) oxidase of R. capsulatus. These findings support the assumption that all of the heme-copper oxidases utilize the same catalytic mechanism and provide a residue originates from different places within the primary sequence for different members of the same superfamily.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-010-0437-z
Sayi :38 issue :5 Sayfa :3319-3326
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most common genetic variations in human genome, can manage the predisposition of certain complex diseases or situations such as obesity. Genetic polymorphisms also play an important role as they can impact a population's susceptibility to being overweight or obese and developing related chronic complications such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. The present study comprised of 193 unrelated healthy volunteers (120 females and 73 males) with Turkish origin. Only female adolescents (n = 110) were divided into 2 categories according to their BMI values as overweight (BMI >= 25) and normal (18.5 < BMI < 25) according to WHO classification. Genomic DNA was isolated from venous blood samples and genotyping of DENND1A rs10818854 and CYP19A1 rs2414096 variants was performed on Roche Light Cycler 2.0 Real-Time PCR platform. Serum hormone levels were analyzed by Electrochemiluminescent Immunoassay (ECLIA; Roche diagnostics). The genotype distributions were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both SNPs in the studied population (p > 0.05). The genotype distribution of DENND1A rs10818854 was determined for the first time in Turkish population and the variant allele frequency was found as 0.095. According to reduced sex hormone-binding globulin levels and increased free androgen index in the present study, obesity was linked with hyperandrogenism in female subjects. Both polymorphisms were investigated as potential genetic susceptibility markers for obesity and neither DENND1A nor CYP19A1 showed any associations.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-018-4380-8
Sayi :45 issue :6 Sayfa :2193-2199
Purvalanol A is a specific CDK inhibitor which triggers apoptosis by causing cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Although it has strong apoptotic potential, the mechanistic action of Purvalanol A on significant cell signaling targets has not been clarified yet. Polyamines are crucial metabolic regulators affected by CDK inhibition because of their role in cell cycle progress as well. In addition, malignant cells possess impaired polyamine homeostasis with high level of intracellular polyamines. Especially induction of polyamine catabolic enzymes spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), polyamine oxidase (PAO) and spermine oxidase (SMO) induced toxic by-products in correlation with the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we showed that Purvalanol A induced apoptosis in caspase- dependent manner in MCF-7 ER(+) cells, while MDA-MB-231 (ER-) cells were less sensitive against drug. In addition Bcl-2 is a critical target for Purvalanol A, since Bcl-2 overexpressed cells are more resistant to Purvalanol A-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure of MCF-7 cells to Purvalanol A triggered SSAT and PAO upregulation and the presence of PAO/SMO inhibitor, MDL 72,527 prevented Purvalanol A-induced apoptosis.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-013-2847-1
Sayi :41 issue :1 Sayfa :145-154
High expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp) in breast cancer has been closely associated with tumor cell proliferation and thus a poor clinical outcome. Quercetin, a good Hsp inhibitor as a dietary flavonoid, possesses anticarcinogenic properties. Although there are many studies on the effects of quercetin on Hsp levels in human breast cancer cells, research on elucidation of its molecular mechanism continues. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on Hsp levels and whether quercetin is a suitable therapeutic for two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) representing breast tumors which differed in hormone receptor, aggressiveness and treatment responses. To examine the response to high and low doses of quercetin, the cells were treated with three doses of quercetin (10, 25 and 100 mu M) determined by MTT. The effects of quercetin on Hsp levels, apoptosis and DNA damage were examined by western blot analysis, caspase activity assay, comet assay and microscopy in human breast cancer cells. Compared to MDA-MB231 cells, MCF-7 cells were more affected by quercetin treatments. Quercetin effectively suppressed the expression of Hsp27, Hsp70 and Hsp90. While quercetin did not induce DNA damage, it triggered apoptosis at high levels. Although an increase in NF-kappa B levels is observed in the cells exposed to quercetin, the net result is the anticancer effect in case of Hsp depletion and apoptosis induction. Taken together our findings suggested that quercetin can be an effective therapeutic agent for breast cancer therapy regardless of the presence or absence of hormone receptors.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-020-05641-x
Sayi :47 issue :7 Sayfa :4957-4967
P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is encoded by the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) in humans and is the product of MDR1. It is expressed in various tissues and is related to drug distribution in intestinal erythrocytes, capillary endotel of brain, proximal tubules cells of kidneys and liver canalicular cells. Expression of Pgp is affected by Pgp polymorphism, and exon 26 C3435T polymorphism is the most common one. It has been thought that expression of Pgp is high in C-allele subjects and this situation is responsible for the resistance against some drugs and substances. Pgp may have a role in the distribution of thyroid hormones, drugs used for hypo- and hyperthyroidism and the resistance occurred. For this purpose possible relationship between T and C alleles and frequency of Pgp polymorphism as well as thyroid hormone distribution in patients with hypo- and hyperthyroidism was investigated. Thirty five hyperthyroidism patients diagnosed as Graves' disease, 78 hypothyroidism patients diagnosed as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 100 healthy volunteers were included in the study. According to the results obtained no statistically significant difference was found in Pgp C3435T polymorphism between hypo- and hyperthyroidism patients. In addition, the serum free T3 levels of hyperthyroidism patients with C alleles was higher than those of subjects with T alleles. No statistically significant difference was seen in the CC, CT and TT genotype frequencies between the patients and control groups. In conclusion, it seems that Pgp polymorphism is not a predictor factor for the occurrence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. There is a significant relationship between Pgp and the elevated serum free T3 levels of hyperthyroidism patients, and further research will help understand this situation.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-007-9142-y
Sayi :35 issue :4 Sayfa :693-698
Natural killer (NK) cells have antifibrotic effects. We have evaluated the influence of rat bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) treatment on liver histology, biochemical liver function tests, systemic immunoregulatory state and NK cell distribution in liver and peripheral blood in rat model of common bile duct (CBD) ligation and compared the results with the control group. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) CBD ligated (CBDL) rats received phosphate-buffered saline (CBDL+PBS group) or (2) MSC (CBDL+MSC group) and sham-operated rats received MSC (healthy+MSC group). We found significantly decreased fibrosis scores with BM-MSC treatment in CBDL rats compared to the control (CBDL+PBS) group while no fibrosis developed in sham operated (healthy+MSC) group. BM-MSC treatment has decreased the inflammation as reflected by the significantly decreased T cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokine concentrations from splenocyte culture and liver tissue itself compared to CBDL+PBS. NK cells both in parenchyme and portal areas decreased significantly in liver and blood in CBDL+PBS compared to healthy+MSC while they were found to be increased in CBDL+MSC compared to CBDL+PBS rats. In conclusion, BM-MSCs may suppress hepatic fibrosis accompanied by expanded intrahepatic NK cells in CBDL rats. Thus, our animal study shows that MSC treatment holds great promise for treatment of patients with end-stage liver diseases through a possible mechanism by adopting the NK cell population and new studies investigating the role of NK cells and clinical fibrosis are warranted.Trial registration number: Marmara University Animal Care and Use Committee approval code: 73.2013.mar.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-019-04736-4
Sayi :46 issue :3 Sayfa :2997-3008
HER2/ErbB2, a known proto-oncogene (also known as HER2, neu), is among the most practiced molecules in the cancer area. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is over expressed in approximately 20-30 % of breast cancer tumors and also in a lot of other human cancer types. It is known to be related to the aggressiveness of the disease, increased mortality and higher relapse ratio. The unusual HER2 overexpression is associated with more severe disease characteristics in several cancers. In recent past, there have been remarkable advances in understanding the role of the HER2 gene in cancers. Caspases are well renowned proteases that act as essential initiators and executioners of the apoptotic process. The primary function of HER2 is suppressing apoptosis to enhance cell survival and eventually giving rise to uncontrolled proliferation and tumor growth. The objective of this work was to study the expression levels of HER2 and apoptosis related factors CASP-3 and CASP-8 in several breast and other cancer cell lines and finally to find a meaningful correlation between all these. We summed up by obtaining an increase in expression of HER2 in all cancer cell lines as compared to that of CASP-3 and CASP8. In summary we conclude that HER2 promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis i.e. by downregulating CASP3 and CASP-8. This is a novel study comprising the expression study of HER2 and different caspases in different cancer cell lines simultaneously. It is thus expected that this study will aid in better establishment of correlation between HER2 and caspases in different malignancies.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-014-3700-x
Sayi :41 issue :12 Sayfa :8031-8036
Sarcoidosis (SA) is an immune-mediated multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the accumulation of lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes and epithelioid cell granulomas involved in different organs and tissues. The belief that genetics contribute to SA etiology is supported by twin studies, disease clustering in families and racial differences in incidence rates. Involvements of SLC11A1 in macrophage function and activation, makes it an attractive candidate gene for immune-mediated and infectious diseases. We investigated the association between SA and four polymorphisms of the SLC11A1 gene, including a single nucleotide change in intron 4 (INT4); a nonconservative single-base substitution at codon 543 (D543N); a TGTG deletion in the 3' untranslated region; and the functional (GT)(n) repeat polymorphism in the 5' region, in 95 Turkish SA patients and 150 healthy controls, by using amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. We found significant association between SA and INT4 G/C allele frequency (P = 0.0000; odds ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 1.68-4.52) and 5'(GT)(n) allele 2/3 frequency (P = 0.0000; odds ratio 2.69; 95% confidence interval 1.61-4.47) suggesting that SLC11A1 might be a plausible candidate gene for SA.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-011-1297-x
Sayi :39 issue :4 Sayfa :5009-5016
Inflammation caused-aggrecan degradation is a critical event in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The aggrecanases like a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS5) are assumed to be key players in the aggrecan destruction. To develop the comprehensive therapy method for OA, it is essential to elucidate the activation mechanism of ADAMTS5 gene after stimulation of inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The cell lines of human chondrosarcoma (OUMS-27) and embryonic kidney (HEK293T) were incubated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) for certain time periods, and the expression level of ADAMTS5 was measured in both mRNA and protein levels. Tissue-specific ADAMTS5 activation was founded to be induced after TNF-alpha treatment. Then, the constructs for the promoter region of ADAMTS5 were prepared and luciferase assay was conducted to understand the involvement mechanism of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-& x138;beta) in ADAMTS5 activation. It was demonstrated that NF-& x138;beta induces the ADAMTS5 expression level by directly binding the promoter region of ADAMTS5. Although the TNF-alpha blocker is used for OA treatment, the development of a more comprehensive treatment strategy is an urgent need. Our experimental data contributes in terms of selecting NF-& x138;beta as a target molecule. Up to date, NF-& x138;beta has been proven to involve in the ADAMTS5 up-regulation after several pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulation. In conclusion, our findings make important contributions to the knowledge about the roles of NF-& x138;beta in ADAMTS5 activation under inflammatory conditions. So, NF-& x138;beta could be considered to be a potential target for OA treatment.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-020-05514-3
Sayi :47 issue :6 Sayfa :4215-4223
Targets of E2F transcription factors effectively regulate the cell cycle from worms to humans. Furthermore, the dysregulation of E2F transcription modules plays a highly conserved role in cancers of human and zebrafish. Studying E2F target expression under a given cellular state, such as quiescence, might lead to a better understanding of the conserved patterns of expression in different taxa. In the present study, we used literature searches and phylogeny to identify several targets of E2F transcription factors that are known to be serum-responsive; namely, PCNA, MYBL2, MCM7, TYMS, and CTGF. The transcriptional serum response of zebrafish orthologs of these genes were quantified under different doses (i.e., 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 10% FBS) and time points (i.e., 6, 24 and 48 hours, h) using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in the zebrafish fibroblast cells (ZF4). Our results indicated that mRNA expression of zebrafish pcna, mybl2, mcm7 and tyms drastically decreased while that of ctgf increased with decreasing serum levels as observed in mammals. These genes responded to serum starvation at 24 and 48 h and to the mitogenic stimuli as early as 6 h except for ctgf whose expression was significantly altered at 24 h. The zebrafish Mcm7 protein levels also were modulated by serum starvation/replenishment. The present study provides a foundation for the comparative analysis of quantitative expression patterns for genes involved in regulation of cell cycle using a zebrafish serum response model.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-010-0531-2
Sayi :38 issue :6 Sayfa :4111-4123
Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are activated by Wnt pathway stimulation and have crucial roles in the regulation of beta-catenin destruction complex. CYLD is a tumor suppressor and a deubiquitination enzyme. CYLD negatively regulates the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway by deubiquitinating Dvl proteins. Loss of function and mutations of CYLD were linked to different types of solid tumors. Loss of function in CYLD is associated with Dvl hyper ubiquitination, resulting in the transmission of Wnt signaling to downstream effectors. beta-catenin upregulation is observed during disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Deregulated Dvl signaling may be a reason for beta-catenin activation in CML; and CYLD may contribute to Dvl deregulation. First, we evaluated mRNA expression in three CML cell lines and mRNA expression of the CYLD gene was found to be present in all (K562, MEG01, KU812). Unlike solid tumors sequencing revealed no mutations in the coding sequences of the CYLD gene. DVL genes were silenced by using a pool of siRNA oligonucleotides and gene expression differences in CYLD was determined by RT-PCR and western blot. CYLD protein expression decreased after Dvl silencing. An opposite approach of overexpressing Dvl proteins resulted in upregulated CYLD expression. While previous reports have described CYLD as a regulator of DVL proteins; our data suggests the presence of a more complicated reciprocal regulatory mechanism in CML cell lines.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-017-4122-3
Sayi :44 issue :5 Sayfa :391-397
O-linkedN-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational protein modification that regulates cell signaling and involves in several pathological conditions. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the attachment, while O-GlcNAcase (OGA) splits the GlcNAc molecules from the serine or threonine residues of the nuclear and cellular proteins. The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) is a small branch of glycolysis that provides a substrate for the OGT and serves as a nutrient sensor. In this study, we investigated the impact of external O-GlcNAc modification stimulus on the insulin signal transduction, unfolded protein response, and HBP in 3T3-L1 cells. First, we treated cells with glucosamine and PUGNAc to stimulate the O-GlcNAcylation of total proteins. Also, we treated cells with tunicamycin as a positive internal control, which is a widely-used endoplasmic reticulum stressor. We used two in vitro models to understand the impact of the cellular state of insulin sensibility on this hypothesis. So, we employed insulin-sensitive preadipocytes and insulin-resistant adipocytes to answer these questions. Secondly, the OGT-silencing achieved in the insulin-resistant preadipocyte model by using the short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference method. Thereafter, the cells treated with the above-mentioned compounds to understand the role of the diminished O-GlcNAc protein modification on the insulin signal transduction, unfolded protein response, and HBP. We found that elevated O-GlcNAcylation of the total proteins displayed a definite correlation in insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, we identified that the degree of this correlation depends on the cellular state of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, reduced O-GlcNAcylation of the total proteins by the shRNA-mediated silencing of the OGT gene, which is the only gene to modify proteins with the O-GlcNAc molecule, reversed the insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress phenotype, even with the externally stimulated O-GlcNAc modification conditions. In conclusion, our results suggest that OGT regulates insulin receptor signaling and unfolded protein response by modulating O-GlcNAc levels of total proteins, in response to insulin resistance. Therefore, it can be a potential therapeutic target to prevent insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-020-05665-3
Sayi :47 issue :8 Sayfa :5927-5942
Autocrine growth hormone (GH) signaling is a promoting factor for breast cancer via triggering abnormal cell growth, proliferation, and metastasis, drug resistance. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has anti-proliferative, anti-carcinogenic, anti-hormonal effect via acting on PI3K/Akt, NF-kappa B and JAK/STAT signaling. Forced GH expression induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) through stimulation of miR-182-96-183 cluster expression in breast cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the role of NF-kappa B signaling and miR-182-96-183 cluster expression profile on autocrine GH-mediated curcumin resistance, which was prevented by time-dependent curcumin treatment in T47D breast cancer cells. Dose- and time-dependent effect of curcumin on T47D wt and GH+breast cancer cells were evaluated by MTT cell viability and trypan blue assay. Apoptotic effect of curcumin was determined by PI and Annexin V/PI FACS flow analysis. Immunoblotting performed to investigate the effect of curcumin on PI3K/Akt/MAPK, NF-kappa B signaling. miR182-96-183 cluster expression profile was observed by qRT-PCR. Overexpression of GH triggered resistant profile against curcumin (20 mu M) treatment for 24h, but this resistance was accomplished following 48h curcumin exposure. Concomitantly, forced GH induced invasion and metastasis through EMT and NF-kappa B activation were prevented by long-term curcumin exposure in T47D cells. Moreover, 48h curcumin treatment prevented the autocrine GH-mediated miR-182-96-183 cluster expression stimulation in T47D cells. In consequence, curcumin treatment for 48h, prevented autocrine GH-triggered invasion-metastasis, EMT activation through inhibiting NF-kappa B signaling and miR-182-96-183 cluster expression and induced apoptotic cell death by modulating Bcl-2 family members in T47D breast cancer cells.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-018-4479-y
Sayi :46 issue :1 Sayfa :355-369
Oxysterols, oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol, are found abundantly in the plasma and atherosclerotic plaques, a common risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs). Among the oxysterols, namely 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC), lead both to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and to apoptosis in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) probably due to increased oxidative stress. Since loss of SMCs through apoptosis is a major event in TAA formation, it is important to understand the molecular pathways of apoptosis in response to ROS in TAAs. Very little is known about the effect of oxysterols on TAA SMCs. Therefore, we investigated molecular pathways participating in the oxysterol induced cell death of TAAs. Our results showed that TAA SMCs died mainly as a result of apoptosis as suggested by cellular shrinkage, blebbing, DNA condensation/fragmentation in response to oxysterol treatment. There was no significant difference in oxysterol induced cell death between TAA and control SMCs. Addition of antioxidant molecules prevented cell death, hence ROS appears to be involved in the apoptosis of these cells. While oxysterol treatment increased caspase 3 activity, cell death was not rescued in its absence. Efficient silencing of other targets including apoptotic proteins (p53, Bax), and survival proteins (Akt1, Akt2) showed that apoptosis can occur through p53, and Bax independent pathways. Silencing Akt1 or Akt2 did not lead to further cell death. These results indicate that oxysterols can induce several cell death pathways in TAA SMCs.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-014-3681-9
Sayi :41 issue :12 Sayfa :7875-7884
The importance of microbial natural compounds in drug research is increasing every year and they are used to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Hypomyces chrysospermus is a cosmopolitan parasite of many Boletaceae members. Since not much work has been conducted to date, this study is undertaken to explore the anticancer effect, including the antiproliferative and antimetastatic activity of Hypomyces chrysospermus. The aim of this study is to determine the antiproliferative and antimetastatic activity of Hypomyces chrysospermus ethyl acetate extract, having antioxidant activity, against A549, Caco2, MCF-7 human cancer and CCD-19 Lu and CCD 841 CoN healthy human cell lines. Firstly, cytotoxic activity was determined by the WST-1 assay. After cell proliferations and anti-metastatic effects were investigated by a real-time cell analysis system (RTCA-DP) and IC50 concentrations were calculated for each cell line. In addition, the expression levels of Apaf-1, TNF and NF-kB mRNA in cancer cells were investigated with RealTime-PCR. The ethyl acetate extract of Hypomyces chrysospermus presented anticancer activities including antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects. Hypomyces chrysospermus as a source of biologically active metabolites can be used as an important resource in the development of new anticancer effective agents.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-020-05468-6
Sayi :47 issue :5 Sayfa :3765-3778
Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely used plasticizer in the plastic industry, affects regulation of the endocrine system and causes toxicity in animals. In the present study, the aim was to study the toxic effects/damages of DBP exposure using Hsp70 levels and histopathological changes in Carp liver and gill. Hsp70 expression levels were assessed as specific biomarker of in vivo ecotoxicological stress. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate, 1 mg/L) for 4, 24 and 96 h. Gill and liver tissues were evaluated histopathologically and RNA quantifications for Hsp70 expression levels were carried out using a two-step real-time RT-PCR. In liver, a rapid but non-significant increase in mRNA levels in the first 4 h was observed. mRNA levels significantly increased up to 2-3 fold after 24 and 96 h (p < 0.05). However, irregular mRNA level changes were also recorded: Gill specific and time-dependent regulation of Hsp70 expression were 4-5 fold inhibition after 4 and 24 h (p < 0.05), then increased up to 4 fold after 96 h (p < 0.05). Histopathological findings support altered transcription results as: Epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellae, telangiectasis, passive hyperemia and hydropic degeneration. Significant alterations of Hsp70 levels were likely due to a tissue specific response against chemical stress, cellular damage and lesions due to DBP. Carp was found to be a suitable experimental model for toxicology, and Hsp70 mRNA levels are reliable, specific biomarkers.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-015-3920-8
Sayi :42 issue :9 Sayfa :1409-1417
Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 (ERCC1) is an important DNA repair gene, playing critical role in nucleotide excision repair pathway and having a significant influence on genomic instability. Some studies support that ERCC1 might be a potential predictive and prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ERCC1 has also been shown to be a promising biomarker in NSCLC treated with a cisplatin-based regimen. Therefore, the determination of ERCC1 expression at DNA, mRNA and protein level in different stages of NSCLC is still an important topic in the cancer. Ninety-one formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples histopathologically diagnosed as NSCLC were examined in this study. ERCC1 expression at protein level were scored by immunohistochemistry. The gene amplification and mRNA expression levels for ERCC1 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. There was complete concordance among the three methods in 39 tumor samples (42.9%). A strong correlation was found between DNA amplification and mRNA expression (r = 0.662) while there was no correlation between mRNA and protein assessment for ERCC1 expression (r = -0.013). ERCC1 expression at mRNA and DNA level (63.1 and 84.2%, respectively) in tumors at stage III was higher than at the other stages. In contrast, the protein expression at stage II and III (56.6 and 52.6%, respectively) of NSCLC was lower than that of tumors with stage I NSCLC. These results show that the mechanism by which ERCC1 expression might play a role in tumor behavior. This study was also confirmed that the appropriate validation and qualification in methods used for ERCC1 status were needed before its clinical application and implementation.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-011-0743-0
Sayi :39 issue :1 Sayfa :335-341
The etiology of pterygium remains unclear, but ultraviolet (UV) radiation is generally considered to be major risk factor. Pterygium has similarity features with many cancers, including inflammation, invasion, cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis and recurrence after resection. Retinoic acid via cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2) is involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and differentiation, while it via fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) is involved in survival, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, which pathway gets activated depends on the CRABP2/FABP5 ratio. Alterations of retinoid signaling were found in many cancer types. The deregulated retinoid signaling may also contribute to the development and/or recurrence of pterygium. The aim of our study was to determine mRNA and protein expressions of CRABP2 and FABP5 and ratio of CRABP2/FABP5 in primer and recurrent pterygium tissues. Pterygia tissues were collected from 30 eyes of 30 patients undergoing pterygium excision. CRABP2 and FABP5 mRNA and protein expression were assessed using Real-time PCR and Western blotting through examination of excised specimens from pterygium and conjunctiva tissues. The ratio of CRABP2/FABP5 gene expression was not altered when primary pterygium tissues compared normal conjunctival tissues (1.00-fold change). Whereas the ratio of CRABP2/ FABP5 gene expression was decreased when recurrent pterygium tissues compared normal conjunctival tissues (0.81-fold change). Understanding etiopathogenesis of pterygium may aid in the find of more promising treatments to prevent pterygium in earlier stages.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-020-05686-y
Sayi :47 issue :8 Sayfa :6105-6110
Diclofenac is a preferential cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor (COX-2) and member of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Inflammation is one of the main reason of poor prognosis of colon cancer cases; thereby NSAIDs are potential therapeutic agents in colon cancer therapy. In this study, our aim to understand the potential molecular targets of diclofenac, which may propose new therapeutic targets in HCT 116 (wt p53) and SW480 (mutant p53R273H) colon cancer cells. For this purpose, we identified different response against diclofenac treatment through expression profiles of PI3K/Akt/MAPK signaling axis. Our hypothesis was diclofenac-mediated apoptosis is associated with inhibition of PI3K/Akt/MAPK signaling axis. We found that sub-cytotoxic concentration of diclofenac (400 A mu M) promoted further apoptosis in HCT 116 cells compared to SW480 colon cancer cells. Diclofenac triggered dephosphorylation of PTEN, PDK, Akt, which led to inhibition of PI3K/Akt survival axis in HCT 116 colon cancer cells. However, diclofenac showed lesser effect in SW480 colon cancer cells. In addition, diclofenac further activated p44/42, p38 and SAPK/JNK in HCT 116 cells compared to SW480 cells.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-018-4378-2
Sayi :45 issue :6 Sayfa :2175-2184
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) signaling has been implicated as an important regulator of chondrogenic differentiation during endochondral bone development. This preliminary study further investigated the putative effectors and/or targets of CNP signaling in transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta induced in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Previously characterized human trabecular bone derived MSCs were induced either with only TGF-beta 1 or with a combination of TGF-beta 1 and CNP in micromass culture for 10 or 20 days. Genome wide gene expression profile changes in between these two groups were analyzed on day-10 or day-20 of culture. Results revealed that there were only 7 genes, whose expression change was fourfolds or higher in TGF-beta 1 and CNP fed group in comparison to only TGF-beta 1 fed group. The up-regulated genes included matrilin-3 (MATN3), engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1), CD24, and DCN1, defective in cullin neddylation 1, domain containing 1 (DCUN1D1). The down-regulated genes, on the other hand, included LIM domain kinase 2 (LIMK2), Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1, and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12 (GNG12). The up-regulation of MATN3 was confirmed on the basis of RT-PCR. The known literature on both CNP signaling and MATN3 function in chondrogenesis match with each other and suggest MATN3 as a putative effector and/or target of CNP signaling during this process.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-014-3448-3
Sayi :41 issue :9 Sayfa :5549-5555
Caspases are important initiators and most well-known finishers of apoptosis. By changing the death propagation homeostatic equilibrium, their different expression patterns might trigger the progression of hazardous diseases like cancer. miR-221 is an oncogenic miRNA. It is known to have both anti-angiogenic and angiogenic effect. The aim of this work was to compare the expression levels of miR-221 and its target caspase-3 in different cancer cell lines and to find out a relationship between these two. We also tried to establish a prominent relationship between miR-221 and its role in apoptosis by studying their expression levels. Our results indicate that expression of caspase-3 is quite lower as compared to miR-221 expression in all of the selected cancer cell lines. As a result, we conclude that miR-221 may have a crucial role in repressing the expression of caspase-3 which may contribute to a lower apoptotic rate, thus supporting the selection of more aggressive cancer cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study related to the expression levels of caspase-3 and miR-221 in different cell lines at the same time. We expect that our study might pave the way for better understanding the role of miR-221 in apoptotic regulation of caspase-3.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-014-3461-6
Sayi :41 issue :9 Sayfa :5877-5881
Truncated KIT (tr-KIT) is an alternative variant of c-KIT protein. Previous studies have clearly documented that c-KIT was associated with various oncogenic processes in RCC. However, the biological significance of tr-KIT in RCC development and progression remains unclear. So, it was aimed to investigate the possible association between RCC and tr-KIT which is thought to activate some oncogenic pathways. In this study, Kidney Cancer cDNA Array containing a total of 48 cDNA samples from the normal kidney tissues of 9 healthy subjects and kidney tumor tissues of 10 stage-1, 5 stage-2, 13 stage-3 and 11 stage-4 RCC patients was used for gene expression analysis. Real-Time PCR method was used to measure tr-KIT/c-KIT expression ratios. tr-KIT/c-KIT expression ratio was compared between tumor and normal samples, and statistically correlated with the clinical parameters of RCC patients. tr-KIT/c-KIT expression ratio was approximately 4-times higher in tumor samples than control ones (p = 0.001). Also, tr-KIT/c-KIT expression ratio was approximately two, three and six times higher in Fuhrman nuclear grades 2, 3 and 4 than normal, respectively (p = 0.009). Moreover, clear cell and papillary RCC has a significantly higher level of tr-KIT/c-KIT expression ratio than chromophobe RCC (p = 0.016). In the current study, it was stated for the first time that tr-KIT/c-KIT expression ratio was up-regulated in RCC tissues, and high tr-KIT/c-KIT expression ratio was correlated with more aggressive clinical features and poor patient prognosis. Our results suggest that increased tr-KIT/c-KIT expression ratio might be useful as a prognostic marker for RCC patients.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-019-04985-3
Sayi :46 issue :5 Sayfa :5287-5294
Myeloperoxidase is a lysosomal enzyme of polymorphonuclear leucocytes that contributes to inflamatory responses. In previous studies it was shown that MPO was synthesized in atherosclerotic lesions responsible of lipoprotein oxidations. We aimed to determine the MPO -463 G/A gene polymorphism distribution in Turkish population and evaluate the effects of it on myeloperoxidase levels. There were 100 myocardial infarct patients and 100 healthy control subjects in our study. MPO polymorphism was studied by using PCR-RFLP technique and MPO levels were measured by ELISA. It was shown that MPO levels were increasing in patients after myocardial infarct event but there were no effect of MPO -463 G/A polymorphism on MPO levels. It was also found that serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and smoking was contributing factors in increments of MPO enzymes. We observed that MPO levels were increased in CAD but there were no effect of MPO -463 G/A polymorphism on MPO levels.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-010-0181-4
Sayi :38 issue :2 Sayfa :887-891
Stroke is a disease that affects the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. Although platelets are implicated in the pathophysiology of stroke the mechanism is still not clear and there antiplatelet agents available for the prevention and treatment of stroke. We herein examined the relationship between the potential cytokine, TNF-alpha platelet activation and apoptosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. We selected 60 patients (mean age 57.9 +/- A 10.2 years) who had not taken any antiplatelet drugs for 14 days. A group of 45 participants (mean age 51.05 +/- A 9.07 years) were selected as the control group. For both the patients and for the control group, P-selectin (CD62p) and Annexin-V binding, cytochrome-c levels, caspase-3 gene expression and caspase-3 releasing and plasma TNF-alpha levels were measured in platelets. The results showed significant increase in plasma TNF-alpha and platelet Annexin-V, CD62p, cytochrome-c and caspase-3 gene expression in stroke patients compared to the control group. The data of this work suggests that inflammation may have a role in platelet apoptosis in stroke which may suggest a new aspect of the role of inflammation in the development of acute ischemic stroke.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-013-2787-9
Sayi :40 issue :12 Sayfa :6721-6727
A benthic diatom, Nitzschia navis-varingica was found for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. Effects of this diatom species together with the haptophyte Chrysochromulina alifera and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa pygmaea isolated from the northeastern Mediterranean Sea coast on prostate, breast cancer and fibroblast cell lines were investigated. Algal extracts did not exert any toxic effect on these cell lines and it had growth stimulatory impact on the cells without discrimination of cell type. Our results suggest potential use of these algal extracts in tissue repair and cell growth boosting additive in the diet of humans as well as animals. Moreover, these algal extracts have potential to be used as natural resource in the skin vitalizing creams of cosmetics industry and as wound healing agents in the atopic drugs.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-018-4195-7
Sayi :45 issue :4 Sayfa :571-579
Although the developmental stages of gastric carcinoma are still not clear, the constantly generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) may contribute to the process of carcinogenesis by interacting with DNA. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) is an enzyme involved in base excision repair of 8-oxoguanine that is one of the premutagenic lesions generated by ROS in DNA. The bulky adducts, are recognized and repaired by nucleotid excision repair (NER) enzymes, including xeroderma pigmentosum C and D (XPC, XPD). Eligible 106 gastric cancer patients and 116 cancer-free individuals constituted the study and control groups, respectively. Association between OGG1 Ser326Cys, XPC Lys939Gln, XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms and the susceptibility tho cancer and the oxidative stress status were evaluated. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells and genotypes were determined by using PCR-RFLP. Serum nitric oxide, albumin concentrations, total antioxidant status and Helicobacter pylori IgG were determined. Serum albumin and nitric oxide of cancer patients were lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05). None of the evaluated polymorphisms or Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity associated with increased risk of gastric cancer, despite of the increased oxidative stress in cancer patients.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-011-0690-9
Sayi :38 issue :8 Sayfa :5379-5386
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between APOA4 gene T347S polymorphism with obesity measures and serum lipids in Turkish adults. Randomly selected sample of 1,554 adults (754 men, mean age 50.4 +/- A 11.9 years and 800 women, mean age 49.6 +/- A 11.8 years) were included in the study. 346 Women (43.2 %) were postmenopausal. Genotyping was performed by using hybridization probes in real-time PCR. Not men but postmenopausal women, carrying the S347 allele, were associated with 1.5 kg/m(2) higher BMI (P = 0.016) and 3.6 cm wider waist circumference (P = 0.005) than postmenopausal T347 homozygotes, controlled for covariates. Logistic regression analyses of this polymorphism, adjusted for age, fasting triglyceride, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity disclosed the rare allele to be associated with obesity in postmenopausal women at an odds of 1.80 (95 % CI 1.09-2.97; P = 0.021). Serum apoB level was lower in S347 allele carriers (110.9 +/- A 2.9 mg/dL) than in T347 homozygotes (119.0 +/- A 2.4 mg/dL; P = 0.035) in men but not women. APOA4 T347S polymorphism was unrelated to lipids and other lipoproteins in either gender. The APOA4 S347 allele predisposes to obesity and high waist circumference in Turkish postmenopausal women. ApoB levels are lower only in men in S347 allele carriers.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-012-1990-4
Sayi :39 issue :12 Sayfa :10907-10914
In this study, we aimed at identifying the regulatory role ofmarTgene, known as the regulator ofmisL, on 15 different biofilm-related genes inS.Typhimurium 14028 strain. We also tested the strains for their ability to form biofilm and determined the adherence characteristics of the wild type and the mutant strains of the organism on Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells. For comparative analyses of the candidate genes, individual gene mutations were created via antibiotic gene cassette insertion into each gene of interest.marTgene was cloned behind an arabinose inducible BAD promoter in order to controlmarTexpression. This recombinant plasmid was transfer into each of the 15 mutant strains to investigate the level of expression of each single gene in the presence and absence ofmarTinduction. Besides determination of variations in biofilm formation by each mutant strain, the attachment characteristics of them onto Caco-2 and HEp-2 cell lines were also reported. As a result of attachments experiments on polystyrene surfaces, it was determined that the biofilm production capacity of each mutant strain decreased in a statistically significant manner (p < 0.05). QRT-PCR trials indicated that themarTgene regulates the expression of 14 genes, namelyfimA,fimD,fimF,fimH,stjB,stjC,csgA,csgD,ompC,sthB,sthE,rmbA,fliZandyaiC, in a positive manner. QRT-PCR studies were also revealed that the MarT protein positively regulates its own promoter. When the adherence characteristics of the mutant strains and the wild-type were investigated by using Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, it was determined that the single gene mutations did have no effect on bacterial adhesion. In view of our mutational analyses and biofilm formation studies, it was concluded thatfliZ,ompC,rmbA,stjBandstjCgenes are related with biofilm formation inSalmonella,besides other cellular functions of them. Taken together, our data suggested that the regulatory role of MarT protein is not only restricted to the regulation ofmisLgene expression, but it rather acts as a general regulator on the biofilm-related genes inSalmonella.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-020-05573-6
Sayi :47 issue :7 Sayfa :5041-5050
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, by inducing oxidative DNA damage, is one of the leading causes of increased patient morbidity and mortality in coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG) surgery. 8-Hydroxyguanine (8-OHG) is an important oxidative base lesion. The 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1) and hMTH1, which have several polymorphisms, remove 8-OHdG from the nucleotide pool. We investigated whether there are any correlations the biomarkers of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase; SOD and 8-OHdG in serum) with genotype for two DNA repair genes (OGG1 and MTH1) and an antioxidant enzyme gene (manganese superoxide dismutase; MnSOD). Therefore, we measured DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG) and endogenous antioxidant activity (SOD) at five different time points (T1, before anesthesia; T2, after anesthesia; T3, after ischemia; T4, after reperfusion and T5, after surgery). and also, MnSOD and MutT homolog 1 (MTH1) genes polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in patients undergoing coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG) surgery. No statistically significant differences were detected in the levels of 8-OHdG and SOD in serum in terms of OGG1 Ser326Cys, MTH1 Val83Met and MnSOD Ala16Val genetic polymorphisms. Our results suggest that OGG1, MTH1 and MnSOD gene polymorphisms are not genetic risk factors for I/R injury.
DOI : 10.1007/s11033-010-0378-6
Sayi :38 issue :4 Sayfa :2427-2435