The levels of endogenous form of free, bound and total-gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (zeatin) in culture medium were determined. The changes in dry weight of the mycelium, dependent on the culture periods, was examined through the use of white-rot fungus Lentinus tigrinus and brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus which were cultured in the medium of olive oil mill waste in a static culture. Spectrophotometric techniques were used to determine the amounts of endogenous GA3, ABA and zeatin. As a result, fungi used in this study showed that they synthesized GA3, ABA and zeatin as a primary or secondary metabolite and these plant hormones were found to be in free and bounded forms.
The antimicrobial activities of valex (an extract of valonia), the extracts of mimosa bark, gallnut powders, Salvia aucheri var. aucheri and Phlomis bourgei were studied. The antimicrobial efficiency of the above plants was evaluated according to the disk diffusion method by using Bacillus brevis FMC 3, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus EÜ, Escherichia coli DM, Pseudomanas aeruginosa DSM 50071, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Listeria monocytogenes A, Micrococcus luteus LA 2971, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 5, Mycobacterium smegmatus RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1 bacteria , and Alternaria alternata MDC 97, Penicillium italicum MDC 101, Fusarium equisetii C, and Candida albicans fungi. The findings indcated that mimosa bark extracts having an inhibition zone of 11-31 mm had the maximum antibacterial efficiency, followed by valex, gallnut powders, Salvia aucheri var. aucheriand Phlomis bourgei extracts, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that gallnut powders and the extracts of mimosa barks only, containing high amounts of tannins, showed the antifungal efficiency, However the others did not.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
Mimosa bark, Gallnut powders, Salvia aucheri var. aucheri, Phlomis bourgei, Antimicrobial activity
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical enzymes protecting cells against toxic superoxide radicals. To date, 3 types of SODs have been identified: Cu-ZnSODs, Fe-MnSODs, and NiSODs. In this study, a genome-wide analysis was performed in Sorghum bicolor to characterize SOD genes and proteins. Using several bioinformatics tools, we characterized a total of 8 SOD genes from the Sorghum genome. Gene structure, chromosomal distribution, tissue specific expression, conserved domain, and phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes were carried out. Additionally, 3-dimensional structures were determined and compared within each SbSOD protein. Chromosomal distributions revealed that the highest number of SOD genes was on chromosomes 1 and 10, with 2 members on each. Single segmental gene duplication was observed between the genes SbSOD2 and SbSOD5. Intron numbers of SbSOD genes ranged from 5 to 7. Motif analyses showed that SbSODs included 2 and 3 common motifs in Cu-ZnSOD and Fe-MnSODs, respectively. In addition, 3 functional domains were identified in SbSODs: 1) copper-zinc domain (Pfam: 00080) in Cu-ZnSOD; and 2) iron/manganese superoxide dismutases alpha-hairpin domain (Pfam: 00081) and 3) iron/manganese superoxide dismutases, C-terminal domain (Pfam: 02777) in Fe-MnSODs. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis showed that 8 SOD genes have similar molecular functions and biological processes, and variable cellular components. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cu-ZnSODs (92%) and Fe-MnSODs (100%) were separated by high bootstrap values. Additionally, predicted motif structures and critical binding sites of SbSODs were found to be similar within each SOD group. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of SOD genes and proteins in plants, especially in Sorghum taxa.
DOI : 10.3906/biy-1403-9 Anahtar Kelimeler :
Superoxide dismutase, Sorghum bicolor, genome-wide analysis, in silico analysis
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the important oilseed crops of the Indian subcontinent and fungal diseases like early leaf spot (ELS) and late leaf spot (LLS) caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Phaeoisariopsis personata, respectively, are major peanut cultivation constraints. Defensins are basically antimicrobial peptides that have been implicated in plant defense against various microbial attacks. Transgenic peanut plants, developed through Agrobacterium mediated transformation of de-embryonated cotyledons and overexpressing a synthetic defensin fusion gene from fenugreek (Tfgd2) and radish (RsAFP2) linked by a linker peptide, were found to have enhanced resistance to the ELS and LLS infection over the wild type (cv. GG 20). Both transformed and untransformed lines were characterized for leaf spot diseases using a detached leaf assay. PCR and RT-PCR analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of these genes in peanut transgenics. This investigation provides further evidence that a fusion product of two plant defensins can be successfully implemented as a means of imparting resistance to multiple fungal pathogens through genetic engineering in peanut.
One of the natural reservoirs of potentially human-pathogenic bacteria is believed to be the rhizosphere. The aim of the present work was to test nontuberculous mycobacterium Mycobacterium phlei MbP18 for its ability to colonize the rhizosphere of wheat and to evaluate its effect on plant growth under saline conditions. In competitive wheat root tip colonization assays, M. phlei MbP18 showed poor competitive colonization of the wheat rhizosphere compared to the reference strain. The strain produced lipase, amylase, cellulase, and pectinase and grew well in the presence of high salt (up to 4% NaCl) and at high temperatures (up to 40 °C). It was also able to utilize a wide range of carbohydrates for growth. The strain produced indole-3-acetic acid and proved to be very efficient in promoting a significant increase in the shoot and root of wheat under saline conditions. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that M. phlei MbP18 has beneficial effects on plant growth under saline conditions through its ability to produce different biologically active compounds such as cell wall-degrading enzymes and the phytohormone auxin. However, its competitive colonization abilities in the rhizosphere are poor. In light of this observation, attempts should be made to manage the rhizosphere in order to prevent colonization of the rhizosphere by pathogens. This will help remove mycobacteria from habitats where humans or animals can be exposed.
Antipyretic effects of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) HBK (Fam. Piperaceae) were investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of P. pellucida at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the elevated body temperature of rabbit. This antipyretic effect has been compared with antipyretic effect of standard aspirin and the solvent used.
A quantitative test to study Listeria and Salmonella adherence to epithelial cells was developed. The quantitative test is rapid and allows the simultaneous testing of many variables such as the adherence ability of different bacteria to their target cells as well as the capability of various molecules to inhibit bacterial adherence. By using a strain-specific standard curve in each test, the test for the quantification of adherent bacteria became specifically sensitive. Non-viable biotinylated bacteria and immobilized cells or their extract were found relevant for the study of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions. Adherence ability of Listeria strains was found to be 10-fold that of the Salmonella strains used in this study. Bovine milk was able to inhibit at least 90% of the adherence ability of Listeria and Salmonella strains. Milk components may be useful for the identification of bacterial surface molecules involved in adherence, which is the first key step in the pathogenicity of invasive bacteria. Preliminary results indicate that the test may also be used to determine the competitive adherence ability of bacterial strains.
The effects of hypoxia on the activities of some enzymes of antioxidative, non- enzymatic scavenging system, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation, and some reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaves of Zea mays were investigated. Samples were taken 48, 96, 144, and 192 h after the start of hypoxia treatment. A 192 h hypoxia treatment resulted in a significant rise in membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level), and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-) in maize leaves. A short duration of hypoxia enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 220.127.116.11), catalase (CAT; EC 18.104.22.168), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 22.214.171.124), and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 126.96.36.199), while further hypoxia significantly decreased the enzyme activity but increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA). It was observed that the reduction in SOD activity was greater than that in GR and APX (H2O2 scavengers). Our results showed that O2- induced membrane damage and lipid peroxidation, and that excessive accumulation of O2- is due to the reduced activity of SOD under hypoxia.
An efficient in vitro bulblet production procedure from immature zygotic embryos of endemic and endangered Muscari muscarimi Medik. was described in the current study. Zygotic embryos were first isolated from immature seeds and cultured on different nutrient media compositions supplemented with various combinations of a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), picloram, dicamba, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and thidiazuron (TDZ). The best bulblet regeneration (59 bulblets per explant) was achieved in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 4 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L NAA after 1 year of culture initiation. Regenerated bulblets were then transferred into MS medium without plant growth regulators for rooting. Bulblets produced well-developed root systems and increased their size on this medium after 2 months. All rooted bulblets were successfully transplanted into a potting mixture and acclimatized to ambient conditions.
Molecular techniques are used today in many areas and have increased the confidence level of studies. The aim of the study was to compare the classical morphological characters of coccoid green algae under field and culture conditions by using modern molecular analysis. To achieve this aim, we first isolated the coccoid green algae from Liman and Cernek lakes. The morphological variations of green algae were observed under culture conditions and the phylogenetic relationships of these strains were defined according to the 18S rRNA gene sequences. According to sequence analysis, 2 of the isolated species had high similarity to Scenedesmus subspicatus (98%) and Desmodesmus sp. (100%).
Arnebia densiflora Ledeb. (Boraginaceae), a medicinal plant growing in Turkey, has been reported to contain a well-known red pigment, shikonin, a naphthoquinone derivative. In the current study, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of the root, stem, and flowers of the plant, as well as shikonin, were investigated. AChE inhibition was tested using an ELISA microplate reader at 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 µg mL-1. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and the Fe+2-ferrozine test system for metal chelating power. The results indicated that the methanol and water extracts of the roots had a moderate DPPH radical scavenging effect at 2000 µg mL-1, while the extracts exerted a better ferrous ion chelating effect as compared to the reference, butylated hydroxyanisole. Only the root chloroform extract showed mild inhibition against AChE at 62.5 µg mL-1 (49.6 ± 1.69%). Shikonin was inactive in all of the assays performed.
Enantiomerically pure, fluorinated compounds have an important role in medicinal chemistry. Alternaria alternata isolates were used for the synthesis of (S)-2'-fluorophenylethan-1-ol 1b and (S)-3'-fluorophenylethan-1-ol 2b. Biocatalytic syntheses of optically active 1b and 2b were achieved by asymmetric reduction of 2'-fluoroacetophenone 1a and 3'-fluoroacetophenone 2a in the batch culture of A. alternata containing ram horn peptone (RHP). The reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and agitation) that improve the conversion of the substrates were studied. The optimal reaction conditions were found as pH 6.0, agitation 250, temperature 32 °C and substrate 3 mmol/100 mL. The gram scale productions of 1b and 2b by the most effective biocatalyst A. alternata EBK-6 using RHP was carried out in a fermenter with 1-L working volume. The results showed that the yields with >99% enantiomeric excess (ee) of both 1b and 2b reached 75% for 1b and 66% for 2b. The concentrations of products 1b and 2b at the end of fermentation were 3.1 g/L and 2.8 g/L, respectively. As a result, 2 important chiral intermediates for the pharmaceutical industry using A. alternata EBK-6 in the submerged culture containing RHP from waste material were scaled up to gram scale with excellent ee.
The effects of sub-chronic administration of an aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis stem bark on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated. The possible protective effect of the F. bengalensis (500 mg/kg of body weight per day) extract on STZ-induced changes was evaluated over 12 weeks. The parameters evaluated were plasma proteins, including total protein albumin and globulin, non-protein nitrogenous substances, including urea, uric acid, and creatinine, and hematological indices, including total hemoglobin content, erythrocytes, leucocytes, and platelets counts. The aqueous extract had a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect against STZ-induced changes in terms of the markers of protein metabolism and hematological indices. Furthermore, increases in levels of non-protein nitrogenous substances were normalized in response to the administration of the extract. Thus, the aqueous extract of F. bengalensis had a significant protective effect on STZ-induced changes to biochemical and hematological parameters in the diabetic rats.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
Ficus bengalensis, non-protein nitrogenous substances, hematological indices
Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid compositions from eggs; seventh, eighth and last nymphal stages; and 1, 20- and 40-day-old adult females of the black cricket, Melanogryllus desertus, grown in stock-culture medium under laboratory conditions were analyzed by gas chromatographic methods. A large amount of the fatty acid components at all the development stages of the insects analyzed comprised oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. However, palmitoleic, myristic and linolenic acids were also found, at lower levels. There were fluctuations in fatty acid levels at different development stages, such as nymphs and adults. Oleic acid was lower in 1-day-old and older adults compared to nymphal stages, whereas linoleic acid was higher.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
Fatty Acid Compositions, Development Stages, Melanogryllus desertus
In the treatment of dermal wounds, wound-dressing materials prepared from natural mucopolysaccharides are widely used because of their advantages such as nonirritation, nontoxicity, and ease in topical application. In the present study, alginate hydrogels modified with N-acetyl glucose amine (NAG) were prepared as wound-dressing material. Physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the hydrogels were studied. Cytotoxicity of the hydrogels on endothelial (HUVEC) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells were examined. Anti- and proinflammatory cytokine levels of human monocyte-macrophage cells (THP-1) stimulated with hydrogels were determined. According to the results, increasing the NAG concentration led to an increase in the swelling and nitrogen ratios in the hydrogels. Additionally, increasing the NAG concentration decreased elastic modulus and degradation time. Hydrogels were not cytotoxic on HaCaT and HUVEC cells. It stimulated IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels at a small rate.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of heavy metals (Ni, Fe, Pb, Co, Cd, Hg, Al, Zn and Cu) on pollen germination and pollen tube length in the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv. Karabağlar. The results showed that enhanced concentrations of heavy metals, except Fe, decreased the pollen germination rates and the pollen tube lengths. With Fe concentrations, on the other hand, first a positive, and then a negative relation was determined between the pollen characteristics examined. The most toxic effect on pollen germination was seen with the applications of Cu, Ni and Hg; on pollen tube length, on the other hand, a similar tendency was determined with the applications of Hg, Cd and Ni. The toxic effects of Co, Al and Fe were found to be low on both of the pollen characteristics. As a result, all the heavy metals examined prevented pollen germination and tube growth in the tobacco plant, but their toxicity levels varied.
In this study, weekly distributions of inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton cell volumes were investigated in relation to the hydrology of the Dardanelles. The data were collected between March 2001 and March 2002. NO-2+NO-3, PO4-3, and SiO4 concentrations ranged between 0.050-6.887 µM, 0.051-1.152 µM, and 0.64-10.74 µM, respectively. During the study, the highest nutrient values were measured between late fall and mid-winter. Inorganic N:P and Si:P ratios in the surface water were lower due to high PO4-3 concentrations. The chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 8.67 µg L-1. Phytoplankton cell density and cell volume ranged from 1.54E + 05 to 6.46E + 07 cell L-1 (mean 7.65E + 06; SD 1.44E + 07 cell L-1) and from 2.51E + 09 to 8.66E + 10 µm-3 L-1 (mean 1.98E + 10; SD 1.86E + 10 µm-3 L-1) between less productive and high productive periods. During the study period, 8-10 species controlled the phytoplankton community structure in the coastal zone of the Dardanelles. Others did not contribute to the phytoplankton population and they only can be considered as accessory species, which do not cause significant fluctuations in the phytoplankton production. Relationships between chlorophyll a, cell density, and cell volume of phytoplankton revealed that chlorophyll a is rather controlled by the cell density than by the cell volume. Furthermore, the physicochemical variables, such as nutrients and chlorophyll a and phytoplankton cell density and cell volume, are affected by the counter flows in the Dardanelles. Phytoplankton population was more limited by nitrogen than by phosphate due to extra phosphate inputs coming from various sources, such as domestic waste waters as well as the vertical mixing between upper and lower layers.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
Turkish Straits System, chlorophyll a
Microtubule-targeting agents represent one of the most successful groups of anticancer drugs used in cancer therapy today. These drugs induce a prolonged mitotic arrest through chronic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. Apoptosis, an outcome of the prolonged mitotic arrest, is the main mechanism by which these anticancer drugs kill cancer cells. However, not much is known about the mechanism that directs chronic SAC activation to apoptosis among other possible outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Slx5, a sumo-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, is involved in directing chronic SAC activation to apoptosis. We show that chronic SAC activation triggered by a 10-h nocodazole incubation leads to a prolonged mitotic arrest in the slx5Δ strain similar to wild type (WT). However, the proportion of cells displaying apoptotic features such as nuclear fragmentation, DNA fragmentation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased more in the WT strain during the chronic SAC activation compared to slx5Δ, indicating that Slx5 may be involved in the chronic SAC-activation-apoptosis relation. We also showed that the possible role of Slx5 in the chronic SAC activation-apoptosis association was not through ubiquitin dependent degradation of 3 apoptosis-related and sumoylated candidate proteins.
Accumulated poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was determined in lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus. Lactobacilli were grown in MRS broth and the others were grown in Elliker broth medium. Cell biomass was obtained by centrifugation. The cell walls were lysed with sodium hypochlorite. Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate was extracted using chloroform in a Soxhlet system. Then it was converted to crotonic acid using sulfuric acid and the amount of crotonic acid was measured spectrophotometrically. The yield of poly-b-hydroxybutyrate % of cell dry weight of Lactobacillus species was 0.52-25.55%. The values for Lactococcus and Streptococcus species were 0.61-14.81 and 1.20-13.69%, respectively. It was observed that one of the Streptococci and six of Lactococcus species did not produce poly-b-hydroxybutyrate. Generally, Lactobacillus species produced more poly-b-hydroxybutyrate than the other tested bacteria did and no significant correlation was observed between poly-b-hydroxybutyrate production and cell density of the cultures. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria according to PHB yield.
Anahtar Kelimeler :
Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Ranunculus marginatus d'Urv. var. trachycarpus (Fisch. & Mey.) Azn. and R. sprunerianus Boiss. were tested in vitro for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays. Methanol extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity in both assays. The total phenolics in the extracts were determined colorimetrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. The total flavonoid content of the extracts was evaluated by a spectrophotometric method. The results obtained in the antioxidant activity tests were in positive correlation with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts. An antibacterial activity analysis was carried out using paper disk diffusion and micro-well dilution techniques. All of the extracts displayed antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria in the disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all the extracts of both Ranunculus species were found to be between 128 and 256 µg/mL.
Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacological and surgical approaches are the main treatment options for heart disease; however, heart transplantation may be the only option for advanced heart failure patients despite its limited nature. Recent advances enabled stem cell-based therapies to become a promising treatment approach for injured or weakened cardiac tissue. With the identification of resident and heart-specific stem cells in early 2000, new avenues of research have been opened to understand heart development, disease, and regeneration. In this review article, different cardiac stem cell subpopulations are classified and defined based on the expression of various characteristic surface or intracellular proteins, including, but not limited to, C-kit, Sca-1, Isl-1, Nkx2.5, HCN4, SIRPA, Flt-1, and KDR. Understanding cardiac stem cell biology, self-renewal, and differentiation mechanisms holds great promise for directing these processes and utilizing these cells to repair or even build new hearts.
Multielement analyses were carried out on whole fruit, soaps, gummy extract, and fresh infusions of Pistacia terebinthus using the ICP OES technique. Digestion processes were optimized in a microwave oven. Qualitatively, the elements Al, As, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ge, Hg, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Ti, V, W, and Zn were found in the fresh fruit. Al, Cd, and Pb levels in the infusions of gummy extract exceeded the upper limits specified by the Turkish Food Codex and filtration was recommended before consumption of the hot beverage. Using ICP OES a determination of metals was checked with standard reference material (GBW 07605).
Transcription of the Autographa californica nuclear polynedrosis virüs (AcNPV; Family: Baculoviridae) p39 gene (delayed-early gene) has been studied extensively in the productive system of Spodoptera frugiperda cells. This is the first transcriptional study of this gene in the Bombyx mori cell line. In this study, comparative transcription of the AcNPV p39 gene was examined in S. frugiperda and B. mori cell cultures. Northern blot hybridization of totoal RNA samples, isolated from mock-infected (O and 48 hour post infection, h.p.i.) and AcNPV-infected (0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 h.p.i.) S. frugiperda and B. mori cell lines, was analyzed. Results indicates that the 1.08 kb RNA fragment, specific to the p39 gene, is present in AcNPV-infected S. frugiperda and Bombyx mori cell lines. Moreover, the amount of transcript is higher and transcription occurs later in the cell line than in the S. frugiperda cell line.
In this study, 26 Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from a stream polluted by factory waste and from petroleum-contaminated soil. The surface tension (ST) of the cultures was used as a criterion for the primary isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Biosurfactant production was quantified by ST reduction, critical micelle concentration (CMC), emulsification capacity (EC), and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Two of the isolates, P. aeruginosa 78 and 99, produced rhamnolipid biosurfactant. The strains started rhamnolipid production in the logarithmic phase. They decreased the ST of the culture from 73 dyne/cm2 to 29 and 33 dyne/cm2, and the CMC of produced rhamnolipids were 115 and 130 mg/L, respectively. P. aeruginosa 78 and 99 strains emulsified benzene and n-hexane at the highest rates, and the surfaces of these strains were 73% and 65% and 62% and 72% more hydrophobic for benzene and toluene, respectively.
Fifty-three Nocardia strains were the subject of a restriction polymorphic ribosomal RNA analysis (ribotyping) designed to distinguish between representatives of clinically significant species and related strains. The organisms were assigned to 19 groups using a combination of EcoRV gene restriction endonuclease patterns and a digoxigenin-labelled Streptomyces violaceoruber TK21 rDNA probe. Each ribotype group contained 4 to 13 restriction fragments that ranged in size from 20.7 to 0.9 kb. The N. brasiliensis, N. crassostreae, N. farcinica, N. otitidiscaviarum, and N. seriolea strains showed distinct ribotype patterns. Unique banding patterns were also seen for the type strains of N. brevicatena, N. carnea, N. salmonicida, N. uniformis, and N. vaccinii, and for the single representatives of "N. fusca", "N. pseudosporangifera", and "N. violaceofusca". More than one banding pattern was detected for the N. asteroides, N. flavorosea, N. nova, N. pseudobrasiliensis, and N. transvalensis strains. The results are in line with current trends in nocardial systematics thereby indicating that restriction polymorphism ribosomal RNA analyses provide valuable data for the classification and identification of novel and pathogenic nocardiae at the species level.
Antibacterial activities of aqueous, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of Aegopodium podagraria L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro against 6 bacteria species. Antibacterial properties were determined by disk diffusion and tube dilution method. Based on the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the ethanol extract showed the highest activity (1.25-5 mg/ml). Among the tested bacteria, the most sensitive species were Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, while the most resistant was Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol extract was chosen to investigate the effects of its combinations with commercial antibiotics by the checkerboard method. Results showed that the interactions between ethanol extract/streptomycin and ethanol extract/chloramphenicol were synergistic, additive, and indifferent against the tested human-pathogenic bacteria. Synergism was observed in relation to Bacillus subtilis. Synergy was confirmed at an ethanol extract concentration corresponding to 1/4 MIC and antibiotic concentrations corresponding to 1/4 MIC and lower.
The current study reports the optimal cultural parameters for GA3 production by Pseudomonas sp. isolated from wastes of processed olive affected by physiological conditions (incubation temperature, pH of the growth media, incubation period, and incubation conditions). The highest level of gibberellic acid (285.06 mg/l) production was obtained in nutrient broth when the bacteria culture was incubated at 30 °C for 72 h at pH 7 on rotary shaker and in the dark.
EMS was used as a mutagen in Capsicum annuum L. to isolate karyomorphological mutants. Seeds of Capsicum annuum L. var Azad were first pre-soaked in distilled water and then treated with 0.5% solution of EMS for 3 durations, i.e. 3, 5, and 7 h, and genetic segregation was closely observed. Many chromosomal anomalies like stickiness, bridges, and multivalent, secondary associations, laggards, and precocious movement were observed after all 3 durations of treatment. These anomalies showed a dose-dependent increase in frequency. The morphological parameters showed a decreasing trend along with the increasing dose. However, with the 7-h dose 3 morphologically distinct plants were isolated, which varied not only from other sib plants but also from control plants. Their cytological analysis revealed a predominance of bridges and increased frequency of bridges in all 3 plants. Therefore, it can be presumed that these 2 factors together may be responsible for creating deviations in these 3 plants.
Bioassays of 2 types (antibacterial and antitumor) were performed to show the biological activities of 16 different plants grown in Bolu, Turkey: Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L., Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Frey & Bornm.) Bornm., Salvia tomentosa Mill., Mentha pulegium L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr., Melilotus alba Desr., Medicago lupulina L., Galega officinalis L., Xeranthemum annuum L., Cichorium intybus L., Plantago lanceolata L., Plantago major L. subsp. major, Fumaria officinalis L., Galium palustre L., Echium vulgare L., and Sambucus nigra L. For each plant, 3 different extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and methanol) were obtained, and a total of 48 extracts were evaluated. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae by disk diffusion method. All plants except M. alba, M. lupulina, X. annuum, G. palustre, and S. nigra showed inhibitory activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The best inhibitory activity was observed with aqueous extract of M. officinalis (22.5 mm); it performed better than all positive controls (erythromycin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol; 7-20 mm) against P. aeruginosa. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced potato disk tumor assay. The best antitumor activity was obtained with the methanolic extract of M. alba and aqueous extract of F. officinalis (100% tumor inhibition).
During the process of industrial production of biofuels and biochemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, large amounts of waste byproducts rich in xylose are generated, resulting in excessive wastage of natural resources and environmental pollution. In this work, xylose solution from corncob hydrolysate was utilized to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), using the strain Enterobacter cloacae CICC 10011 to improve the utilization rate of hemicellulose and reduce environmental pollution. 2,3-BD fermentation conditions were subsequently developed. Xylose solution and (NH4)2HPO4, selected with the Plackett-Burman experiment, were determined as significant independent variables to conduct a response surface experiment. With the optimized medium, 50.02 g/L 2,3-BD production was obtained, which corresponded to 85.16% of the theoretical value. Furthermore, 81.4 g/L 2,3-BD production, 92.95 g/L the total production (2,3-BD + acetoin), and 0.72 g/(L h) productivity were obtained by fed-batch fermentation. Therefore, efficient production of 2,3-BD from corncob-derived xylose is important in the future development and expansion of biorefining technologies.